Zeta potential is a term commonly used in colloidal chemistry. When tiny mineral or organic particles are suspended in a fluid, Zeta Potential maintains the dispersion or discreteness of the particles in suspension.

In science, we learn that like charges repel and opposite charges attract. In an ideal system like blood, we want all particulates to have a like electrical charge. If the particles have no electrical charge, the various particles will clump together and form sludge. Therefore, the higher the Zeta Potential the better the dispersion of particles in suspension.

Thomas Riddick, a pioneer in colloidal chemistry, said that Zeta Potential is a basic law of nature. Without zeta potential, life could not exist. The high Zeta Potential or negative electrical charge on particles entering the bloodstream may help to increase the dispersion or discreteness of blood cells by helping to enhance the electrical charge on blood colloids which include blood cells.

For an outstanding and indepth discussion of Zeta Potential as it relates to cardiovascular disease, see Thomas Riddick's paper on this subject at

When blood cells are free flowing, they expose maximum surface area to the blood and are therefore able to hold and transport more oxygen and other nutrients throughout the body.

To better understand the role of Zeta Potential in functional (and/or oxygen enriched) water we remember that this phenomena is a key factor in the following processes:

(A) THE PREPARATION OF COLLOIDAL DISPERSIONS for useful purposes as in paints, inks, pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations, food products, drilling muds, dyestuffs, foams and agricultural chemicals.

(B) THE USE OF COLLOIDAL DISPERSIONS AS A STEP IN THE MANUFACTURIING PROCESSES, for example in ceramic casting, cements and plaster, brickmaking and pottery, paper coatings and catalyst supports.

(C) THE UTILIZATION OF COLLOIDAL PHENOMENA including: detergency, capillary phenomena which are important in the wetting of powders, the expulsion of oil from reservoir rock, the retention of moisture and nutrients in soil, and in the coating of surfaces, the flotation of minerals, the absorption of impurities as in sugar refining, solvents recovery and electrophoretic deposition of paints.

(D) THE DESTRUCTION OF UNWANTED COLLOIDAL DISPERSIONS in water purification, the fining of wines and beers, sewage disposal, the breaking of oil emulsions, the dewatering of sludges and the dispersal of aerosols and fogs.

Therefore, Zeta Potential is well known in the biosciences and in the case of functional water production or oxygen enrichment can be applied to these nano-meter sized particles or colloids by high energy vortexial effects.

In the heart, medical science knows that as the heart valves open and close and as blood rushes through these heart valves, the blood spins in a vortexial fashion, creating negative surface charges on the blood cells as they leave the heart.

These negative charges offset a wide range of free radicals which may be entering the body through air, water or foods.

Without this constant replenishment of the Zeta Potential on our blood, all of us would be dead long before we began reading this section of the website.

Smaller colloids or silicates result in a stronger Zeta Potential. If the colloids or silicates in the "seed" or concentrate get too large, surface area decreases, Zeta Potential suffers and random collisions cause larger growth. This process is repeated until the system is destroyed.

The presence of Zeta Potential in naturally occuring functional waters can be observed by noting that when water containing suspended materials(colloidals) is left standing for an extended period of time, no material precipitates to the bottom of the container.

Ionic Water Components Can Determine Zeta Potential

Molecular compounds in water are composed of various atoms with electrons spinning in their orbits and is a mix of anionic and cationic components. The ratios of these anions to cations give indications as to the valence of the molecule or electrolyte.

The ions of both anionic and cationic electrolytes may carry from one to four charges and are accordingly designated mono-, di-, tri-, or polyvalent type electrolytes.

When the electrolytes are negatively charged they are written as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 to indicate their ratios and their respective ionic strength. The higher the ratio the more ionic strength to increase zeta potential and have a dispersionary effect.  The right ionic balance is good for humans.

When the electrolytes are positively charged they are written as 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1. The higher these ratios, the more ionic strength to decrease zeta potential and coagulate, agglutinate, flocculate, sludge and downright clog up systems. The wrong ionic balance is bad for humans.

Negative Charge - 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4. Ratios indicate ionic strength.

Higher = more strength to increase zeta potential. Good for humans.

Positive Charge - 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1. Higher ratios here means more strength to decrease zeta potential. Bad for humans.

Note that a lot of processed foods with chemical preservatives, pesticide residue and additives are of a cationic 1:1, 2:1 nature.  Bad for humans. These foods have a natural zeta potential lowering effect on the blood. 

As it is, blood is naturally maintained in a dispersed state that is just on the verge of beginning to sludge. This is required for an effective blood clotting mechanism so if you cut yourself you don't bleed to death. The blood clotting mechanism is associated with the release and activation of prothrombin-thrombin which is a cationic polyelectrolyte.

Heparin on the other hand is an anionic polyvalent electrolyte dispersing agent and is used medically to relieve intravascular coagulation.

Now with blood at a natural precipice just ready to sludge, if we add negative health items, including highly cationic, mineralized water to our diet that have a further sludging effect on our blood, the situation for health begins to deteriorate.

For more information on Zeta Potential, see

Recent blood tests using Dark Field Microscopy(Live Blood Cell Analysis) in South Africa has determined that drinking microclustered water produced by the Vitalizer Plus™ system illustrated below resulted in a rapid decoagulation of red blood cells(RBC).

Apparently, the increase in zeta potential by way of the "structure making" ions added to the process provided the electromagnetic effect to help separate the RBC.

A corrollary, but expected effect, has been observed when individuals who exercise regularly and have special cardiovascular monitoring devices on their exercise machines. The observed effect is a substantial reduction in average and peak exercise heart rate when the Vitalizer Plus™ water is used. Some of the cardio strip charts illustrating this remarkable result are shown on THIS PAGE.

The impact of this result is one which should be of interest to athletes everywhere who seek maximum body performance with minimal cardiovascular stress. One would expect similar results even when modest exercise such as experienced when mowing the lawn, jogging, rapid walking or other activities which increase heart rate.