long hot showers is a health risk, according to research presented last
week in Anaheim, California, at a meeting of the American Chemical Society.
Showers-and to a lesser extent baths-lead to a greater exposure to toxic
chemicals contained in water supplies than does drinking the water.
The chemicals evaporate out of the water and are inhaled. They can also
spread through the house and be inhaled by others. House holders can
receive 6 to 100 times more of the chemical by breathing the air around
showers and bath than they would by drinking the water."
18 September 1986 lan Anderson
indicate the suspect chemicals can also be inhaled and absorbed through
the skin during
showering and bathing."
even the Chlorine widely used to disinfect water produces Carcinogenic
7 out of 10 Americans drink chlorinated water, its safety over the long
term is uncertain."
chlorinated water may as much as double the risk of the Bladder Cancer,
which strikes 40,000 people a year."
NEWS & WORLD REPORT
- July 29 1991 Is Your Water Safe-The Dangerous State of Your Water
long, hot shower can be dangerous. The toxic chemicals are inhaled in
87 Dr. John Andelman, Ph.D..
one hand, chlorination has freed civilization from the constant dangers
of waterborne epidemics. On the other hand in the mid-70s scientists
discovered that chlorination could create carcinogens in water."
of the population drinks chlorinated water."
was a higher incidence of cancer of the esophagus, rectum, breast, and
larynx and of Hodgkins Disease among those drinking chlorinated surface
organics can evaporate from water in a shower or bath."
calculations indicate that inhalation exposures can be as significant
as exposure from drinking the water, that is, one can be exposed to
just as much by inhalation during a shower as by drinking 2 liters of
water a day."
who shower frequently could be exposed through ingestion, inhalation
and/or dermal absorption. "
YOUR WATER SAFE TO DRINK? Consumer Reports Books
absorption of contaminant has been underestimated and ingestion may
not constitute the sole or even primary route of exposure."
JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH,
Dr. Halina Brown
is suspected as the primary cause of elevated levels of chloroform in
nearly every home because of the chlorine in the water."
PROTECTION AGENCY Dr. Lance Wallace
Professor of Water Chemistry at the University of Pittsburgh claims
that exposure to vaporized chemicals in the water supplies through showering,
bathing, and inhalation is 100 times greater than through drinking the
chlorine is added to kill pathogenic microorganisms, the highly reactive
chlorine combines with fatty acids and carbon fragments to form a variety
of toxic compounds, which comprise about 30% of the chlorination by-products."
the mid-1970s monitoring efforts began to identify widespread toxic
contamination of the nation's drinking water supplies, epidemiological
studies began to suggest a link between ingestion of toxic chemicals
in the water and elevated cancer mortality risks.
those studies were completed a variety of additional studies have strengthened
the statistical connection between consumption of toxins in water and
elevated cancer risks. Moreover, this basic concern has been heightened
by other research discoveries.
NADER REPORT - TROUBLED WATERS ON TAP
Center For Study of Responsive Law
National Academy of Sciences estimate that 200 to 1000 people die in
the United States each year from cancers caused by ingesting the contaminants
in water. The major health threat posed by these pollutants is far more
likely to be from their inhalation as air pollutants. The reason that
emissions are high is that because water droplets dispersed by the shower
head have a larger surface-to-value ratio than water streaming into
VOL. 130 Janet Raloff
cause of atherosclerosis and resulting heart attacks and strokes is
none other than the ubiquitous chlorine in our drinking water."
CORONARIES/CHOLESTEROL/CHLORINE Dr. J.M.
the vast majority of cases where germ-free water is required whether
for public supply, or in the swimming pool, the process of disinfection
will involve the use of chlorine in one form or another."
AND CONTROL OF MODERN CHLORINATION
Dr. A.T. Palin, Ph.D.. (O.B.E.)
gas was despicably used during WWI. When the war was over, the use of
chlorine was diverted to poisoning germs in our drinking water. All
water supplies throughout the country were chlorinated. The combination
of chlorine (when in drinking water) and animal fats results in atherosclerosis,
heart attacks, and death."
CAN UNDERMINE YOUR HEALTH
is the greatest crippler and killer of modern times. While it prevented
epidemics o one disease, it was creating another. Two decades ago, after
the start of chlorinating our drinking water in 1904. The present epidemic
of heart trouble, cancer and senility began."
HOSPITAL Dr. J.M. Price, MD.
risk among people drinking chlorinated water is 93% higher than among
those whose water does not contain chlorine."
COUNCIL OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
tap water that is chlorinated is hazardous, if not deadly to your health.
WATER FOR A LONGER LIFE Dr. Martin Fox
carcinogens are found in drinking water as a direct consequence of the
practice of chlorination. A long established public health practice
for the disinfection of drinking water."
ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY Francis T. Mayo, Director
is used almost universally in the treatment of public drinking water
because of its toxic effect on harmful bacteria and other waterborne,
disease-causing organisms. But there is a growing body of scientific
evidence that shows that chlorine in drinking water may actually pose
greater long term dangers than those for which it was used to eliminate.
effects of chlorine may result from either ingestion or absorption through
the skin. Scientific studies have linked chlorine and chlorination by-products
to cancer of the bladder, liver, stomach, rectum, and colon, as well
as heart disease, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), anemia,
high blood pressure, and allergic reactions. There is also evidence
that shows that chlorine can destroy protein in our body and cause adverse
effects on skin and hair.
presence of chlorine in water may also contribute to the formation of
chloramines in the water, which can cause taste and odor problems."
chlorine is required by public health regulations to be present in all
public drinking water supplies, it is up to the individual to remove
it at the point-of-use in the home. The best available method of chlorine
removal, for the individual consumer is found in the Shower Filter Unit."
Shower Filter Unit is of great value to those who are concerned about
the adverse health effects of exposure to chlorine due to absorption
through the skin or by inhalation.
Filter will Provide superior protection from chlorine, when used in
accordance with the Manufacturer's recommended operating procedures.
LABORATORY Dr. Riddle, Ph.D.
"SHOWERS POSE A RISK TO HEALTH", lan Anderson, New Scientist,
- INGESTION EXPOSURE TO CHEMICALS IN POTABLE WATER" Julian Andelman.
Paper 84-03, University of Pittsburgh,1984.
"THE ROLE OF SKIN ABSORPTION AS A ROUTE OF EXPOSURE FOR VOLATILE
COMPOUNDS (VOCS) IN DRINKING WATER", Halina Brown. American
Journal of Public Health, Vol 74, 5/84.
"TOXIC SHOWERS AND BATHS", Janet Raloff. Science News, Vol
130, Page 190.
John F. Ashton and Ronald S. Laura. Nature & Health,1988.
EXPOSURE TO VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN HOUSEHOLD TAP WATER:
THE INHALATION PATHWAY", T.E. McKone Environ. SCI, Technology,
NADER REPORT-TROUBLED WATERS ON TAP", Duff Conacher and Assc.
For Study of Responsive Law, January 1988.
"DID YOU KNOW THAT. . . A LONG HOT SHOWER", Bottom Line/Personal,
Prior to August 15,1987.
"CORONARIES/CHOLESTEROL/CHLORINE", Joseph M. Price, Jove Book,
CAN UNDERMINE YOUR HEALTH", N. W. Walker D.S., Norwalk Press,1974.
TO DRINK? Safe To Bathe In?", Kurt W. Donsbach D.C., PH.,1989.
IN NATURAL WATERS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE FORMATION OF
ORGANICS DURING WATER DISINFECTION", Scully. Environ, SCI.
Vol. 22, No. 5,1988.537-542.
CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER AND CANCER",
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INCIDENCE AND TRIHALOMETHANE CONCENTRATIONS IN A PUBLIC DRINKING
WATER SYSTEM", George L. Carlo. American Journal of Public health,
Vol. 74, No.
5,1984, PP. 479-484.
OF DIFFUSION OF WATER THROUGH DEAD HUMAN SKIN: THE EFFECT
DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTAL STATES AND OF CHEMICAL ALTERATIONS OF THE
G.S. Berenson and G.E. Burch. AM. J. of Tropical Medicine,1951, No.
"REGIONAL VARIATION IN PERCUTANEOUS PENETRATION IN MAN: PESTICIDES",
Maiback. Arch. Environ. Health, Vol. 23, Sep.1971, P. 209.
"STUDIES OF EPIDERMAL WATER BARRIER, PART 2: INVESTIGATION OF THE
NATURE OF THE WATER BARRIER", A. Mololtsy. J. of Invest. Derm,1968,
VARIATIONS IN TRIHALOMETHANE CONTENT OF DRINKING WATER",
Smith. Environ. SCI. & Technol., Vol.14 No. 2,1987, PP.190-196.
"THMS IN DRINKING WATER", J.A. Cotruvo. Environ. SCI &
Technol., Vol.15, No. 3, >1981,
SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS (VOCS)", K.V. Dyke. Water Technol.
No. 4, Apr.1990, P. 38.
YOUR WATER SAFE?" Carpenter, Hedges, Crabbe, Reilly and Bounds.
U.S. News &
World Report, July 29,1991, PP. 48-55.
YOUR WATER SAFE TO DRiNK?", Raymond Gabler. Consumer Reports Book,1987.