For accurate and educational resources along with a full product line, consider visiting the following water topic webpages which Google ranks near or at the top of these important categories.





Portable Water Distillers

1 of 16,300


Automatic Water Distillers

1 of 18, 600


Whole House Water Systems

1 of 5,620,000


Ceramic Emergency Water Purification Systems

3 of 53,900


Water Conditioners/Softeners

3 of 983,000


Functional Water

1 of 4,820,000


Emergency Water Storage

6 of 1,700,000


Hexagonal Water

1 of 214,000


Electrolyzed/Alkaline Water

2 of 8,050


Structured Water

2 of 2,480,000



Small Format Bottling Systems

1 of 18,500


Large Format Bottling Systems

1 of 19,900


Rotary Bottling Systems

5 of 12,500



Water Stores(& how to build them)

1 of 10,300,000


Dental Water Systems

2 of 2,260,000


Thank you - we look forward to serving you.



"Abundant data now exists to show that water, structured by applied electric and magnetic fields of a variety of configurations and magnitudes, beneficially influences seed germination, plant growth and a human's sense of beverage softness and flavor as well as personal physical well-being.

All the variants of homeopathic processing show that beneficial health benefits for living systems can also be incorporated into the subtle levels of water. Thus, water appears to be an amazing host or solvent for carrying both general as well as specific health enhancements to the end user.

Although we presently have some understanding of how to produce such beneficial structural changes in water, it is still very meager considering the vast potential that seems possible with water.

It is our lack of basic understanding that keeps us from:

(1) preparing water in a highly reproducible fashion for a specific end use;

(2) reliably controlling the lifetime of the unique structure given to water by a given process;

(3) reliably detecting and monitoring the specific structural and informational variants imbedded into a specific water product over time so as to have a quality control capability for that product; and

(4) predicting better pathways for water treatment using old or present processes as well as defining what would produce a superior process.

Now is the time to seriously invest in gaining the required understanding needed for sound commercialization of water products. The storehouse of this vast potential will not be able to be unlocked without careful research directed toward the four points set out in the previous paragraph. It is proposed that funding to support this specific research should be sought now".

Dr. William Tiller - Professor Emeritus, Materials Science, Stanford University (12/1/95)

We will come back and review Dr. Tiller's commentary in light of both pure science as well as "intuition", "subtle energy" or "psychic phenomena", all of which are in some manner related to Tiller's hypothesis and which are directly at odds with conventional scientific techniques for dealing with functional water issues.

Tiller's position is one which results from having one foot on solid scientific methodology such as quantum physics and the other foot placed in the world of parapsychology, metaphysics and psychic phenomena.

This dichotomy of science and psychic comprises the essence of why topics such as functional water can become both heated and disjointed. This is therefore a difficult topic for anyone to sort out. We will do our best to portray all viewpoints and allow the reader to draw their own conclusions.

An Introduction to Functional Water Beverages

Whereas conventional water beverages attempt to make no substantial changes to the source water other than perhaps removing unwanted chemicals, minerals, biological contaminants, odors or tastes through selected water purification processes, Functional Bottled Water Beverages are quite different.

For at least two thousand years, water has been considered as the major facilitator of the development and sustenance of life on earth. Long regarded as the universal solvent, its molecular properties are unique and profound, yet water itself is rarely regarded as anything more than a benign, albeit necessary, adjunct to biological systems and human health.

For years water treatment specialists and a wide array of chemists and biologists have argued over what type of water was "cleanest" or "purest" for human and animal consumption as well as best for plant life.

These arguments are based on how much and what types of contaminants were being removed. What percentage of the dissolved solids were being removed? How about heavy metals? Were bacteria and other microbes being removed---and to what extent?

In other words, the issue in the past was one of water "PURITY" where the arguments, comparisons and controversies were all based on quantitative water quality measurements which could be resolved by a variety of laboratory test equipment which measured dissolved solids, bacteria content or volatile gasses from organic chemicals.

In Conventional Bottled Water Beverages, these attributes of purity and cleanliness are the very criteria that dominate the choice of source or process for a small format bottling operation.

However, recent developments and observations in both the scientific and industrial communities have attracted researchers and biotech firms to water PHYSICS and "functional" water beverages which possess very novel "altered" or "structured" water characteristics.

We address this business area of small format bottling because this is the direction in which we expect smart bottlers will proceed and where significant profits may be attainable because of the niche markets and specialty applications for the various types of successfully produced functional bottled water beverages.

One of the major categories of functional water-based beverages is the nutraceutical market where various types of fruit or herbal concentrates are added to water for nutrient value. At the present time, we will bypass this specific topic and concentrate instead on identifying a special portion of the functional water beverage market.

Creating "Functional", "Altered" or "Structured" Waters

Although this section may not provide a complete and thorough description of each of these "functional", "altered" or "structured" water technologies, it will provide enough information to begin understanding the basics of this rapidly evolving business area and identify which of the evolving Functional Water Beverage business areas may be good prospects for small format bottlers.

This area we refer to as "functional", "structured" or "altered" water beverages ironically remains an "unstructured" science with a wide variety of scientists, pseudo-scientists, wannabe scientists as well as various technology groups with their individual areas of research.

A definition of "altered", "functional", or "structured" water beverages might be as follows


"...any mechanical, electrical, optical or other process or combinations thereof which alters the physical or chemical characteristics of water, thereby creating a new form or species of water which when utilized by plants, animals or humans demonstrates measurable and repeatable benefits to chemical, enzymatic and general cellular functions".

Various technologists and scientists use terminology such as "clustered", "micro-clustered", "nano-clustered", "nano-clustered resonant water", "catalytically altered", "electrolyzed", "oxygenated" and other terms to describe the specific type or species of water which they are developing or producing and which they generally refer to as "functional", "altered" or "structured" water beverages.

In the following discussions, we will use the general terminology "functional" to refer to all of these species of water. Since there are any number of Internet websites which deal with the more highly technical aspects of water molecules and their relationships, we will concentrate on more of a layman's or marketing discussion of the technologies which are being developed to formulate functional beverages.

A Few Words About the "Naysayers"

Before we begin our discussion it is important to point out that as in virtually every emerging science there are those who take up the mantle of antagonist and dispute the basic characteristics of structured or functional waters, or worse, dispute the very existance of any empirical data which validates the emerging functional water sciences.

We find that most of these antagonists come from the academic world and appear to have some book knowledge but little or no practical or hands-on experience in the sciences they criticize. We cannot find any scientific, peer-reviewed papers or studies by these highly critical individuals and must conclude that they themselves have probably failed in the research or development areas or simply have not been able to succeed in the business marketplace for one reason or another.

They are good candidates for attending anger management courses.

These antagonists most likely have failed to keep up with their peers in scientific discoveries and now take great pride in denouncing advancements in sciences where they themselves have failed to make significant contributions. Bitterness, libel and unending ad-hominem attacks are prevalent throughout their websites.

These antagonists have separated themselves from academia for one reason or another and fortunately are no longer in a position to adversely influence the creative minds of college students who may someday be major contributors to scientific advancement.

We hear from an increasing number of reliable sources that the funding and support for many of these antagonists and naysayers is coming from the US drug and pharmaceutical industries. If that is true, it explains the virulent nature of many of these attacks on functional waters. Conventional solutions to various physiological disorders by the orthodox medical community has and will continue to be the financially rewarding slice and drug industries.

An alternative solution as simple as functional water is anethema to the drug and orthodox medical industries and any attempt to present such an alternative is met with paid, wildeyed naysayers disputing even what many conventional medical researchers have determined are not only verifiable techniques for analyzing functional water characteristics but shocking information on dramatic health improvements by way of functional water.

Few scientific breakthroughs are without such virulent animosity and ad hominem attacks. Functional water is a complex science and, although not fully understood in all respects, is continuing to develop a more solid foundation in both general industry as well as the beverage market.

It is a specialty science and has yet to gain significant interest in the broader research community. Yet, significant results in selected medical and industrial applications indicate that important breakthroughs and significant results are close at hand.

We have considered posting the names and websites of individuals who fall into this category and whose credibility has been repeatedly found to be unreliable in situations even involving court cases pertaining to their slanderous remarks. However, you can check for yourelf by a quick Google search under topics such as "functional water" or related subjects will bring their nonsensical and unscientific drivel directly to your computer screen.


In conventional science, there are four forces operating in the universe whereby we can attempt to explain all observable phenomena. These forces are:


(1) strong nuclear force

(2) weak nuclear force

(3) electromagnetic force

(4) gravitational force

The energy associated with any one of these four forces is just the integral of the particular force with distance.

For some time now, many investigators around the world have postulated that there may be other energies at play, creating other phenomena and that these energies cannot be explained by any or all of the four conventional forces identified above.

"Subtle energies" are thus those energies which many scientists and investigators have identified as being able to create phenomena which fall outside of the abilities of the four forces listed above.

This demarcation from conventional, scientific observation of the above forces and "other forces" or "energies" is precisely the dividing line between processes which we will discuss now.

Therefore, the very first thing which is required when studying functional water technologies is to distinguish between the verifiable sciences associated with the four universal forces listed above and energies and phenomenas related to the "subtle energy" approach to altering or structuring water.

Today, reputable scientists who produce functional water products strive to produce products which can demonstrate measurable qualitative and quantitative effects on the (human) user. The "altering" processes thus rely on physical and chemical forces or entities which science can "put their hands around", i.e. the four forces listed above.

These forces are measurable by conventional scientific instruments and accepted testing protocols, yielding repeatable results in the hands of independently operating analysts. These forces may take the form of electromagnetic fields or physical apparatus which change the composition of water or other means.

It is important to restate the fact that in each and every case, the applied electromagnetic fields or other physical phenomena can be repeatedly applied and results observed or measured, at different times and places, and by different individuals, with great degrees of accuracy and consistency.

On the other hand, those water "altering" techniques which employ "subtle energy" concepts are designed to produce effects whose characteristics are difficult if not impossible to measure(and verify) using standard scientific instrumentation techniques and accepted testing protocols. Some of these techniques are confined to the interaction of a single individual who claims to have psychic powers or who manipulates a specific device(such as Radionics) while others who repeat the same experiment cannot replicate the prior observation or condition.

A variety of other terminology is also interpreted as "subtle energy", including scalar waves, chi, orgone, prana, tachyon and etheric energy. Some subtle energy adherents also include such "sacred geometry" phenomena, Radionics(as noted above), or vortexial water flow which is claimed to produce special subtle energy effects in moving water.

It is important to dwell on this distinction for a moment.

Apologists for the "subtle energy" concept are quick to point out that while subtle energies are difficult to understand and measure(and that "orthodox scientists simply "don't get it" yet), a similar situation presumably existed 250 years ago for classic electromagnetism. 250 years ago, the effects of electromagnetism could be seen, but not measured. Science advanced, and so did instrumentation. So today, we can not only observe electromagnetic effects but measure them as well.

The analogy is made by subtle energy adherents that at present we simply do not have instrumentation with adequate sensitivity to make deterministic measurements of these subtle energies.

Unfortunately, the explanation the subtle energy apologists offer is not quite that simple. With very few exceptions, classical physicists have not been able to demonstrate and prove and thus do not believe such "non-electromagnetic" phenomena exist in the positive time/space domain or elsewhere, since the proponents tend to lean on relatively unknown, unmeasurable and unproven biophysical phenomena in humans and other objects.

Most scientists familiar with subtle energy phenomena agree that these energies are not directly observable because they function at what is called a "vacuum" or "negative energy level" and can only be converted to observable data or statistics by an intermediate human observer. Enter the metaphysical, psychic or clairvoyant aspect of this issue.

Unfortunately, for the subtle energy apologists, their cause may have been struck a serious blow by revelations in the San Francisco Chronicle(7/23/99) that a Livermore Laboratories scientist researching the relationship(s) between electromagnetic(EM) fields and cellular responsiveness apparently has been fabricating information which has been used to scientifically link these two areas.

Falsification of this type of data makes it more difficult for peer organizations (medical and otherwise) to begin accepting this biomagnetic relationship as sound science.

What makes this case even more important is the fact that if other scientists and Government watchdog agencies which provided this scientist with research funds could not duplicate the scientist's results, even when very strong electromagnetic fields were involved in the above example(high voltage power lines),thus positing the conclusion that there is little or no chance that far weaker EM fields(distant magnetic fields from space, brain waves, crystals, fetishes and other objects) being studied by the subtle energy proponents are measurable or have any cellular effects?

As noted above, a high percentage of scientists and water "alterers" involved in subtle energy research and applications are deeply involved in the occult, metaphysical, New Age, extra-terrestrial, out-of-body experiences, vibrational medicine, remote viewing and other psychic a nd paranormal phenomena involving crystals, pyramids and a myriad of other devices and fetishes which they consider to have the "power" to provide special energy sources or mechanisms for receiving, retransmitting or focusing these special energies.

Unfortunately, the distinction between verifiable (quantum) phsics and the paranormal or metaphysical is being blurred by those involved in subtle energy to the point where many dedicated and intellectually honest scientists, technology investors, and lastly the public quite possibly are being misled. Those with metaphysical interests tend to rely more on intuition and "channeled information" from disincarnate spirits than on solid science.

For example, most subtle energy adherents believe that various types of crystals have self-generating "energies" which when placed near the body or other objects will influence the biochemistry or neurological functions of that body. See Vibrational Medicine Below. They readily admit that subtle energy is a metaphysical phenomena. Most western(Christian) religious viewpoints on this subject clearly place these types of phenomena on the short list of things to be avoided.

Crystals are known(in conventional electrical engineering circles) to possess specific characteristics with respect to resonance and frequency generation, when stimulated externally by physical or electrical sources. To claim that crystals have any significant, autonomous or self-generating energy capabilities, and not providing qualitative and/or quantitative confirmation of these energies, strains the academic and intellectual credibility of any scientist or medical practitioner who promotes such phenomena.

Therefore, with the sole exception in THIS SECTION, in the following discussion, we will set aside those altered water concepts which utilize so-called "subtle energy" techniques and this section will focus on those chemical and physical alterations which have quantifiable scientific parameters and which can and have proven to provide measurable effects on the human body when consumed as a beverage or produce other desirable effects on plants, animals or humans.

The Food and Drug Association(FDA) has taken an increasing interest in these types of products, since considerable health-related claims have and are continuing to be made by various investigators, technologists and producers of such products. The FDA's activities to restrict outrageous claims(and many indeed have been outrageous) are due for the most part from those who have made those outrageous and non-verifiable claims in the first place.

Other, bona-fide investigators, scientists and producers have been discouraged in some cases and in other investigations and research simply have gone underground or taken their products outside of the USA for marketing.

The last ten years have seen a remarkable reversal of this functional water marketplace: from conditions where tens of millions of dollars have been invested in public companies promoting functional waters(and which ultimately flopped) to the current day where the FDA is assuming heavy handed watchdog activities for the reasons cited above.

Many legitimate and useful products have vanished from many research areas, due in part to the reasons cited above but also due to lack of investor interest due to the failure of thousands of IPO's for a wide range of small companies, functional water activities included.

The initial excitement about the future of functional waters has thus faded somewhat...and awaits the next wave of investor interest as well as entrepreneurial activity in these areas.

Another significant factor which diminished the potential of these functional waters was the almost total lack of peer-reviewed technical reports and laboratory results which would have provided a strong basis for support in the general consumer areas as well as both alternative and orthodox medicine.

Most developers of functional waters tended to be highly specialized technologists or wanna-be scientists and believed that the product could float into the marketplace on essentially anecdotal evidence. The extensive and expensive in vivo laboratory tests necessary to verify cellular responsiveness were either overlooked or were deemed too expensive and time-consuming for the eager entrepreneurs of that era.


(smaller is better)

Biochemists, physicists, neurobiological specialists and other legitimate scientists who have worked with functional water have determined that in order for such waters to be effective in the human body(or animals or plants), the water altering process must be done with extremely small physical entities---entities on the order of nanometer sizes.

A nanometer is 9 orders of magnitude smaller than one meter(roughly three feet). These extremely small dimensions are necessary because any materials which can pass through cell membranes into the interior of the cell(where all the action is, so to speak) must have nanometer dimensions.

Water altering technologies which do not use such "nanometer processes" will by nature be less effective than those which do, primarily because any alterations or physical entities embodied in those alterations simply will not permeate the cellular membrane and therefore remain essentially effective in any cellular activity.

Conventional drugs used by the orthodox medical community normally have molecular dimensions far larger than nanometers, thus preventing their effective passage into the body's cells. As a result, excessive amounts of drugs are required to allow even small amounts to permeate cells, thus resulting in "side effects" due to the large amount of unused or excess drugs floating around in the body fluids/electrolytes.

What each category of functional water has in common is an attempt to influence plant, animal or human cellular activities in some fashion, using various combinations of physical(and chemical) alterations to the basic water molecule.

"Free Radicals" are a byword in the sports and health industries today.

Solving this "free radical problem" via beverages or oral tablets(pills) can be a very lucrative venture if the process can be shown to be more effective than conventional anti-oxidant processes while remaining non toxic in the dosages possible with these new techniques.

Additionally, the process of nutrient "absorption" is constantly bandied about in nutritional circles, with a wide variety of processes being proposed to increase the efficiency of nutrient(or pharmaceutical) absorption by cells. Many functional water categories claim enhanced absorption of such materials when that specific water is used.

Most all of the techniques utilize some variation of electromagnetic energy stimulation to reduce surface tension and thus improve absorption. The process is simple to replicate and surface tension(and hence absorption efficiency and Zeta Potential) is easy to measure using conventional and readily available instrumentation.

Although various researchers carefully conceal the exact, specific processes and procedures which they use to achieve particular altered/structured water characteristics, there are only a handful of known techniques by which various physical characteristics of water can be changed or manipulated.

The extent and in what combination these known technologies are employed determines in large part the differences one observes between various altered/structured water methodologies.

Direct from Nature---or from the Laboratory...

Functional beverages exist in part because in a very limited number of locations in nature, unusual, functional waters have been discovered and determined to possess exceptionally different characteristics from"conventional" waters.

Some of these characteristics have actually proven to be beneficial for selected health purposes and have subsequently fostered substantial research and development efforts to duplicate such characteristics. In nature, the functional characteristics can be generally grouped into the following categories:

(1) Water which has been exposed to and contains naturally occuring electromagnetic effects

(2) Colloidal characteristics of dissolved or suspended materials which possess strongly charged surface chargeristics(e.g. Zeta Potential)

(3) Low surface tension

(4) Exceptionally strong bonding of naturally occurring gasses(oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc.)

(5) The presence of vortexial water movements which assist in bonding gasses, colloidals and electromagnetic effects to the source water; and

(6) Unique "hexagonal clustering" characteristics which can be measured using conventional, accepted scientific instrumentation such as NMR.

(7) The presence of specific ionic materials which serve to "make" or "break" beneficially structured water clusters.

Some naturally occurring functional water sources are stronger than others. In some, removing the water from the source area results in the loss of some of these characteristics.

An example of this latter situation is the water from Lourdes, France where it is said that water used directly from the source contains powerful characteristics which have been linked to various healing effects. The voluminous amount of anecdotal data have catapulted the Lourdes water into the "miracle" class in many secular and religious circules. Unfortunately, when this specific water is removed from the area, its characteristics revert to tap water and any claimed or supposed health benefits completely vanish.

In other geographic areas, the "bonding" and composition of the naturally available water is so strong that the functional effects remain long after the water is drawn from and removed from the source area.

In any event, scientists have been quick to observe these functional characteristics and in both individual and collective efforts, have been attempting to duplicate some or all of these functional characteristics in the laboratory and thus produce beverages which are designed to synthetically approximate those functional waters which have been observed in nature.

Here in the United States, not only the "naysayers" discussed above but also organizations such as the Food and Drug Admininstration(FDA) seem to be ignorant of many of these physical characteristics and restrict or outrightly deny potential bottlers from making claims which relate to selected physiological results, scientifically verifiable or otherwise.

"Ignorance" may be an overly strong condemnation of these organizations since a closer look at this issue clearly shows that powerful organizations such as the American Medical Association and the Pharmaceutical Corporations would literally crumble if:

(a) functional water, with its inherent simplicity were found to be a suitable replacement for orthodox drug and surgery activities(click HERE for a classical example); and go HERE for a discussion of such maladies as high cholesterol and diabetes where functional water has shown to be extremely beneficial.

(b) if such waters were actually placed on an equal par with orthodox pharmaceutical treatments.

Such appears not to be the case in Asia where the science of such waters is not censored but instead highly sought after by the public and the medical professions. There, such waters are researched and supported by the scientific community as a widely accepted alternative for dealing with a variety of physical maladies. Unfortunately, as we shall see below, not everything in the functional water originating from that area has verifiable, beneficial qualitites.

Before we discuss the above characteristics in more detail, it is important to note that "functional waters" can also include such effects such as high level oxygenation, electrolysis and chemical dosing processes which may create effects similar to those listed above.


Since the area of functional water is so broad and diverse, I have divided the subject matter in this section into topical areas which, individually and perhaps collectively, will provide a better insight into this rapidly developing area of the physical sciences.

Click on the individual areas below to see discussions of the various topics. There is no specific order to the topics listed below.

Bookmark this page as we are continually adding topics to this discussion. There are dozens of variations of some of these techniques and processes; far to many to cover in this short section.



Topical Area


Electrolyzed Water


Alkaline Drinking Water

Acidic Water and an Application to Dentistry

The separation of water by electronic processes into alkaline and acidic solutions.

Alkaline promoted by some for drinking; acidic promoted by many organizations for anti-microbial applications.



Oxygenated Water

An Introduction

Oxygen and the Body

How oxygenated water is made

Popular topic - various methods companies have used to increase oxygen content in bottled water. A few successes; many failures.

Willard's Water

(Catalyst Activated)

Early, pioneering effort to increase absorption of water and nutrients for humans, animals and food products.

Grander Water

Functional or fraudulent?

Cellular Resonance & VIVO Water( Lee Lorenzen)

Recent studies using microclustered(hexagonal) water show significant hydration improvement for Type 2 Diabetic patients.

Quite possibly today's premier cellular biochemist who has pioneered the templating of a wide variety of organic materials into small water clusters.

Penta Water

A popular product with anecdotal characteristics but no apparent supporting science or test data.

Introduction to Hexagonal Water

Excellent Books on Hexagonal Water

Many scientists see this as possibly the most important feature and key to effective functional waters.

Vortex Effects on Water

How nature and scientific laboratories use vortex effects to bond gasses and ionic materials to water.

Surface Tension

Various water types have different surface tensions and hence better or poorer absorption characteristics.

How surface tension is modified in nature and in the laboratory.

Temperature Considerations

Creation and shelf-life of effective functional water can be temperature dependent.

Colloidal Considerations

The world of nanometer technology creates solutions not thought possible.

Those minute, negative surface charges and what they mean to water and beverages.

Some astonishing results where Zeta Potential in functional waters appears to be reversing cardiovascular problems related to red blood cell coagulation, increase blood circulation and absorption of nutrients as well as assist in the disposal of cellular toxins and metabolic byproducts.

Electromagnetic Effects

Changing water's physical character by electromagnetics.

The impact of electromagnetics on biological activity

Flanagan's Water(Crystal Energy, Microhydrin, et al.)

Products which claim to reduce surface tension and increase anti-oxidant capabilities.

Pi Water

Questionable and highly contradictory information

Structure Making and Structure Breaking Ions

The different types of minerals in water and how they influence whether water is absorbable by cells and healthy or not.

Possibly more important than getting additional oxygen or altering pH

Pentagonal Water


Why this type of water clustering may not be healthy.

Good Functional Water Reading References

Stuff you must read if you've come this far...

Determining if a specific mineral mix will create a healthy or unhealthy water.

Listing of ionic materials which create or destroy healthy water clusters.

A good topic for potential water bottlers to review.

When potassium chloride replaces sodium chloride in water softeners

The danger that water softening dealerships do not recognize regarding potassium chloride based water softeners.

Making Hexagonal, Functional Water in your Home


Novel and inexpensive process for creating functional water with significant structural enhancements over tap water or even purified water.

Understanding Dark Field Microscopy

Dynamic, visual analysis of blood cells and their activities.

See visual, real-time cellular responsiveness to functional water

Carbonation(natural and otherwise)

Equipment for your Bottling Facility

A rapidly growing beverage market.

Functional Water Analysis Techniques


Instrumentation and techniques used to scientifically validate the integrity of these functional water products

Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance technology to verify micro-cluster water size. - CLICK HERE.

A bibliography of functional and clustered water.
Peer reviewed papers which destroy most of the negative arguments of the "naysayers" and detractors of functional water.
The Contining Saga of "Dr." Stephen Barrett
Far Infrared Effects on Water
Click on link at left for details.
Water's "Memory"

Certain types of electromagnetic effects may have a direct relationship to water's capabilities for "memory"


Complex Water Clusters


Amazing pictorials of how hexagonal water can contain "sub-clusters".
Bovis Biometer
Also known as Bogus Biometer
Dr. Masaru Emoto's "water crystal" photos and related research
Is this verifiable science, pseudo-science or simply a progressive, psychic fantasy?
Vibrational Medicine - Science or Psychic Fantasy?
Straddling the thin line between what the physical sciences can demonstrate and what metaphysical and psychic adherents believe they are observing.