Perhaps one of the most significant books written on the relationship of water and bodily functions is "Your Body's Many Cries for Water"(you are not sick, you are thirsty) by F. Batmanghelidj, MD. and published by Global Health Solutions, Inc. (ISBN 0-9629942-3-5) and is available on for about $11.00.

The author is a formally trained doctor, licensed at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School in London and who exposes in this eyeopening book a wide array of signals that the body can send out indicating cellular dehydration is underway.

He shows how many of these indications have been misdiagnosed by classical medicine as bodily diseases instead of simple dehydration. The list of these signals is indeed long and sobering: dyspeptic pain, rheumatoid joint pain, anginal pain, hypertension, asthma, allergy, raised cholestorol, migrane headaches, chronic fatigue syndrome, elderly diabetes and many others.

The lack of water, particularly intra(inside)-cellular water is strongly related to precursors or the official onset of the above conditions according to Dr. Batmanghelidj. His book is full of eye-opening medical information and should be mandatory reading for anyone suffering from any of the conditions listed above.

Presuming the condition of dehydration, it is therefore important that serious efforts be undertaken to ensure that water is in fact being supplied to the body in adquate quantity to supply extracellular electrolytes(and accompanying salts) but more importantly, the 60% plus of all bodily water which should reside inside of cells in a healthy individual.

As noted on the introductory functional water page which linked you to this page, "functional water" covers a wide range of apparent functions; from oxygen enrichment to pH adjustment to hydration and others.

From a medical standpoint, according to Dr. Batmanghelidj, Lee Lorenzen, Dr. Jhon and a growing number of noted biochemists and medical professionals, cellular dehydration and solutions to that condition should be a primary focus of "functional water", perhaps even more important than oxygen enrichment which has garnered considerable press in the last decade.

Fortunately, technology which allows an accurate measurement of the ratio of intra-cellular water to extra-cellular water exists and is used with great confidence in measuring this critical ratio. RJL Corporation has developed a device called the Bioelectric Impedance Analyzer(BIA) which can measure this critical ratio, the movement of water across cellular membranes as well as other critical parameters related to cellular health.

Hospitals regularly use this device to determine whether or not specific treatments and therapies are working and whether or not a patient's health is improving.

Typically, as we get older, cells lose their natural ability to expand - and start to shrink, in part due to the loss of intra-cellular water as well as the loss of cellular Zeta Potential as described elsewhere in this website. The BIA has been known to measure differences in the cellular water ratios in as little as 10 minutes, much to the surprise and consternation of medical professionals who claim that cellular water interchange cannot possibly take place in less than 40 minutes to 1 hour.

What these professionals do not know is that the type of water which is ingested permits this extraordinarily rapid interchange and rapid measurement. Lorenzen's VIVO water, with its hexagonal water formation has been shown to exhibit this rapid exchange and illustrate both short and long term improvements of bodily conditions with are related to dehydration as explained in Dr. Batmanghelidj's book and other sources.

In short, dehydration is a serious problem which can cause the onset of a wide variety of physiological reactions, including those listed at the top of this page. Maintaining a healthy balance of intra-cellular to extra-cellular water is therefore important and can be enhanced by using a water type which excels in penetrating the cellular membrane.

Such water is described HERE and is available on grocery shelves as described HERE and which also can be inexpensively made on the kitchen countertop as described HERE.


In a 1999 posting at, the question was asked:

"...does carbonated water hydrate the body as well as non-carbonated water?"

A highly disappointing, and misleading answer to this question was supplied by a member of the Clemson University Faculty, Food Science and Human Nutrition - Elizabeth Kunkel.

Ms. Kunkel stated:

"Carbonated water is as effective at hydrating the body as non-carbonated water. Carbonation is simply the addition of carbon dioxide to a product and it has no effect on any of the nutritional properties of that product. Carbonated water is absorbed and metabolized just the same as regular water."

Facts are sometimes unknowingly or hastily mixed with fiction and that unfortunately is what has happened in Ms. Kunkel's response.

(1) Kunkel's only correct statement in her response is the first part of the second sentence regarding the definition of carbonation.

(2) A "nutritional property" is never attached to carbonation - carbonated beverages normally contain a wide variety of undigestible salts and sugars which tend to replenish electrolytes but have no "nutritional" value in the common sense of the term.

(3) Carbonated water is never "metabolized" and because of its presence with inorganic solids in various drinks, is rarely "absorbed" into the cells where metabolic activity occurs. The simultaneous presence of carbonation and a wide variety of inorganic salts and sugars prevents the absorption of this type of water into the cells.

To understand better what types of water are transported easily across cellular membranes, carrying nutrients which are metabolized inside the cell(and not the carbonated water), review the information at the top of this page.

One would expect a specialist in nutrition to understand these basic hydration, nutrient transport and metabolic functions. Apparently that is not the case. I am happy my kids did not attend Clemson and take classes in Food Sciences and Human Nutrition from Ms. Kunkel. There is a dramatic difference between replenishment of electrolytes(which occurs outside of the cell) and hydration(which defines the transportation of water into the cells themselves).

Perhaps in the intervening years they have gotten the memo on hydration and are preparing their students in a more correct manner.

For an exceptionally good and detailed description of the differences between intracellular and extracellular water go to: