Oxygen enriched chart



Before we discuss any particulars of the oxygen-enriched beverage technology and market, we must make you aware of key issues which continue to surround this apparently emergent market.

  • There is considerable controversy surrounding the usefulness, and safety(to the body) when oxygen is taken via water or beverages.
  • There is considerable controversy around the various methodologies being used to place oxygen in water and "stabilize" it for long periods of time/shelf-life.

As a former president and CEO of one of the first oxygen-enriched beverage companies in the USA, I have formed my personal opinions on these two key issues. These opinions/positions will become obvious in the following discussions.



In discussing this specific application of structured/altered water, it important to understand the composition and dynamics of the existing domestic and international drinking water marketplace.

The dramatic turn the consuming public has recently been taking AWAY from carbonated beverages toward supposedly healthier "juices" and "natural" drinks bodes well for alternative beverages such as drinking water.

However, a virtual horde of bottling companies already is packing this business area with a wide range of drinking waters in both small and large format containers as well as vending apparatus and bottled delivery systems. California, the Sun Belt and now the Eastern seaboard are beset with scores of bottling enterprises pumping spring and purified water into all types of outlets.

This massive assault on the drinking water marketplace has created a highly competitive situation for all concerned: prices are depressed and the market is saturated with near-identical drinking waters, with profits at both water vending machines and store-shelves growing slimmer by the month due to the increasingly competitive nature of the market.

It would be safe to say that in many geographic areas, the current bottled water market is approaching a "maturity" or "saturation" phase where multiple entities are competing for virtually the same demographic groups attempting to merchandise virtually identical products(except for product labels and bottle styles/shapes)..

Progressive bottlers are therefore looking deeper into the demographics of the marketplace to identify so-called "niche" products---products which will attract the health conscious Yuppie and X generations---products which can demand a premium price(and subsequent profit margin) and yet utilize existing, expensive capital equipment(i.e. bottling facilities).

Responding to the call that "more oxygen is better", oxygen-enriched drinking water represents one of those "niche' markets. A wide range of participants, both domestically and in both Asia and Europe, have developed various methods for bonding oxygen of various types into water.

This expanding, "oxygen-enrichment" market includes both small format bottling as well as so-called "concentrates" which rely on selected catalytic reactions when ingested to release oxygen from the body's cells into a more bio-available format.

Added to this expanding market are a growing number of research, development and marketing efforts designed to understand and subsequently exploit the "memory" and "structured" aspects of water by utilizing electromagnetic energies imprinted therein by various means.

This incursion by the "oxygen-enriched" and "structured water" communities into the (quantum)physical nature of water is a serious departure from the conventional chemical characterization of water and necessitates an entirely new set of investigative techniques, measurement devices and marketing acumen.

Chemical characteristics of water are far more definitive than its physical characteristics and this more definitive(chemical) understanding has naturally led to a wide variety of water treatment, filtration and purification techniques to "return water to its original (chemical) state.

Unfortunately, the incursion of this visionary group into the subtle energy aspect of water and its possible, therapeutic effect on bodily/cellular functions has raised some serious questions:

  • is this subtle energy phenomena that can be observed when dealing with the physical attributes of water one which can be attributed to quantifiable science(repeatable and measurable EM phenomena) or
  • are these effects more akin to so-called "psychic" phenomena such as radionics, placebo effects or simply the results of strong suggestive conditions?
  • is this new area of physical phenomena sufficiently well-defined and characterized so as to ensure safety as well as reliably imparting known therapeutic effects in its various modalities?
  • is the level of oxygen placed into the water significantly higher than would be obtained through normal breathing processes?

The issue posed by the first item listed above is usually associated with areas of complementary or alternative medical treatment professionals, where subtle energy sciences run the gamut of research topics such as: sound and acoustic therapies; light and color therapies; the interaction of electromagnetic fields with living systems; geo-cosmic phenomena and geomagnetic effects on living systems; the effects of torsion fields, inert gas technologies and geometric structuring of space on life forms; DNA restructuring with bio-electromagnetic fields, and so forth and so on.

Unfortunately, point (2) above never seems to be clinically addressed by these alternative medical groups and so the issues of effectiveness and safety continue to drift along with no peer support from conventional science or the orthodox medical community.

Additionally, much of any "research" in these areas has taken a left-hand turn into the study of the paranormal and metaphysical, rather than a study of the hard physical sciences per se.

Any serious, marketable products developed in this area of altered water-based beverages must remain focused on an evaluation and interpretation of the physical sciences associated with this issue of structured water energies and altered states of drinking water rather than become a victim of New Age thinking and the divergence from hard science which invariably results from any coalescence with that New Age viewpoint.

As it turns out, most of the serious, non-New Age contingents in the "altered water" industry have focused primarily on simplistic forms of enriching various types of water with oxygen and limiting their public discussion of the quantum physics aspects(if any) of subtle energies in EM-altered water.

At this writing, there is no serious or credible competitive efforts to define, either qualitatively or quantitatively, the effects of such quantum energies on either body energy levels or cellular physiologies. Most efforts to date appear to be that of simple collation of available, relevant information, questionable testimonials or limited and relatively simplistic testing efforts.

It is expected that a wide range of "altered water states", each representing a unique biochemical modality, can be defined, developed and merchandised by bottling companies, using the ready-made beverage/water marketplace emerging both domestically and internationally

It is also of paramount importance that as such altered water formulae and beverages are defined and developed such that the advertising, promotion and use of these products are in compliance with such Federal and State regulations that govern claims(if made) regarding any therapeutic results that are quantified by this effort.

Recent FDA actions regarding "nutritional" product claims should give us pause to consider the extent of efforts which will be required in this to ensure compliance with guidelines which govern both the beverage products as well as any collateral materials used by bottlers, distributors or other purveyors of products.

An immense market exists for simple and inexpensive beverages which will meet a growing need for both general health as well as therapeutic, cellular and immune system repair.

Why Some Oxygenation Processes Work - While Others Fail

An April 1998 report in Georgia Institute of Technology's Sports Medicine Newsletter by Dr. Jim M. Brown claimed that

"a gullible audience is falling for super-oxygenated water beverages"


"... the claims for super-oxygenated water have never been subject to peer review, publication in scientific journals and are a case of pure fraud without a physiologic foundation".

Dr. Brown also claimed that the original athletic study on oxygenated water benefits, conducted in Texas on a women's track team, wa a flawed study. This Texas study was trumpeted by the new oxygen industry as proof that the process was beneficial.

Dr. Brown commented on the Texas track team study:

"The study's sample was small, the methods were suspect(no measure of whether the water actually delivered oxygen to the blood) and the premise itself had no scientific basis.

Nevertheless, the author and the manufacturer(of the oxygen drink) concluded that the oxygen-enhanced sports drink improved athletic performance and off to market they went."

This is a pretty heavy condemnation of a business area which has attracted tens of millions of investor dollars, much in public companies who have claimed exceptional (athletic) performance with incredibly high levels of oxygen in functional water.

The critiques don't stop there.

The American Council on Exercise(ACE) commissioned a study of super-oxygenated waters which promised higher energy, greater mental awareness and concentation and other claims. The study reported in the Associated Press on October 8, 2001 and originally reported by Sports Medicine in its September 12, 2001 issue found

"... that drinking superoxygenated water had no measurable effect on the subjects' resting heart rate, blood pressure or blood lactate values".

The study, led by Dr. John Porcari at the University of Wisconsin concluded by stating that

"...at this time, there is no scientific evidence or logical rationale to suggest that drinking super oxygenated water can in any way increase the amount of oxygen in the blood stream".

ACE recommended that regular exercisers keep a constant supply of water in the body to maintain performance since dehydration leads to muscle fatigue and loss of coordination. ACE's website is at www.acefitness.org.

So, what went wrong with this expensive nutritional experiment?

Well, for openers, Dr. Brown is correct on one very important issue:

"...very little oxygen can be forced into water under pressure...less than that contained in a single breath".

Several years ago, the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc nations began using a type of oxygenated water where oxygen was forced into water under high pressure and low temperatures and fed to athletes competing in the Olympics.

This "oxygen cocktail" drink was given to athletes immediately after its production and just prior to athletic competition and may have raised energy levels on a short term basis to achieve a winning edge in close competitions.

These types of energizing drinks escaped detection since most Olympic athletic testing was focussed on steriods and other drugs and not on drinking water or its variant species.

In any event, this process migrated to the US a few years later and became the jumping off point for several large financial activities in "oxygenated" water.

Initial advertising activities for these products included full-page spreads in beverage magazines, slowing quickly to a trickle of smaller ads and and then down to nothing.

So, what happened? Dr. Brown was correct in pointing out that the process which was promoted in these large financial boondoggles was flawed and the water would not retain much for any length of time if oxygen was simply being pumped into the water at high pressures and low temperatures. Upon opening, the oxygen excaped to the air and never had a chance of entering the bloodstream.

If the customer found no appreciable effect from the oxygenated beverage, they never came back for more. That is what appeared to have happened in this case.

Few if any extended, in-vivo tests were conducted, perhaps because the promoters knew that the results would not be complimentary. The promotion thus rode on big, splashy advertisements and thus faded quickly.

So, what went wrong?

If you notice at the top of this page there are two separate ways to produce oxygenated water beverages:

By using a synthetic bonding process

By using a natural bonding process

The case study above employed a synthetic bonding process(low temperature and high pressure)and failed to produce a product with any appreciable retention of the oxygen.

A natural bonding process is far more complicated than a big chiller and air compressor. It is a complete analogy of how nature bonds oxygen with water molecules.

Successful Oxygen Bonding in Beverages

Synthetic processes at best are an approximation to a natural process. This is true in a wide range of scientific areas. One can never attain what nature can do. Genetic engineering is one attempt to achieve that plateau but still has quite a distance to span to get there.

The oxygen bonding process is key to not only retention of the element for long terms but also instrumental in ensuring that the oxygen will enter the bloodstream, firmly attached to its "parent" water molecule(s).


















































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