at least two thousand years, water has been considered as the
major facilitator of the development and sustenance of life on
earth. Long regarded as the universal solvent, its molecular
properties are unique and profound, yet water itself is rarely
regarded as anything more than a benign, albeit necessary, adjunct
to biological systems and human health.
years water treatment specialists and a wide array of chemists
and biologists have argued over what type of water was "cleanest"
or "purest" for human and animal consumption as well
as best for plant life.
arguments usually were based on how much of various types of
contaminant was being removed. What percentage of the dissolved
solids were being removed? How about heavy metals? Were bacteria
and other microbes being removed---and to what extent?
other words, the issue in the past was one of water "PURITY"
where the arguments, comparisons and controversies were all based
on quantitative measurements which could be resolved by a dissolved
solids meter, a bacteria test kit or some type of volatile gas
recent developments and observations in both the scientific and
industrial communities have attracted researchers and biotech
firms to some very novel "altered" or "structured"
is much confusion and lack of understanding of this area of water
technology. Although this section may not provide a complete
and thorough description of each of these altered or structured
water technologies, it should provide you with enough information
to begin understanding the basics of these rapidly evolving business
many cases, wild and exaggerated medical claims are being made
based on little more than anecdotal, testimonial evidence. In
each of the areas we discuss in the following sections, we have
made notes of such inadequacy or outright misinformation/misdirection
about either the product or the development process.
area we refer to as "structured" or "altered"
water ironically remains an "unstructured" science
with a wide variety of scientists and technology groups various
and diverse areas of research. To attempt a single definition
to cover all of these activities would be impossible.
we shall adopt a GENERAL definition of "altered" or
"structured" water, hopefully covering at least the
major areas of interest:
mechanical, electrical, optical or other process or combinations
thereof which alters the physical or chemical characteristics
of water, thereby creating a new form or species of water which
when utilized by plants, animals or humans demonstrates measurable
and repeatable benefits to chemical, enzymatic and general cellular
scientists use other terminology such as "clustered",
"micro-clustered", "nano-clustered", "nano-clustered
resonant water", "catalytically altered" and others
to describe the specific type or species or water which they
are developing or producing.
the following discussions, we will use the general terminology
"altered" to refer to both chemical and physical alterations
being made to water. Also, in the following discussions, we will
limit our view to those applications of "altered" water
which apply to beverages. Discussions of altered water as it
applies to plants, animals and aquatic needs will be treated
at a later date and referenced from this page of the Web Site.
SCIENCE FROM PSEUDO-SCIENCE AND THE PARANORMAL
knownb as the subtle error of "subtle energy")
first thing which is required when studying altered water technologies
is to distinguish between verifiable science and the pseudo-science
or "subtle energy" approach to altering or structuring
reputable scientists who produce altered water products strive
to produce products which can demonstrate measurable qualitative
and quantitative effects on the (human) user. The "altering"
processes rely on physical and chemical forces or entities which
science can "put their hands around".
forces are measurable by conventional scientific instruments
and accepted testing protocols. These forces may take the form
of electromagnetic fields, physical apparatus which change the
composition of water or other means. However, in each and every
case, the applied electromagnetic fields or other physical phenomena
can be repeatedly applied and results observed or measured, at
different times and places, and by different individuals, with
great degrees of accuracy and consistency.
the other hand, those water "altering" techniques which
employ "subtle energy" concepts are designed to produce
effects whose characteristics are difficult if not impossible
to measure(and verify) using standard scientific instrumentation
techniques and accepted testing protocols. A variety of other
terminology is also interpreted as "subtle energy",
including scalar waves, chi, orgone, prana, tachyon and etheric
subtle energy adherents also include such "sacred geometry"
phenomena as vortexial water flow as producing special subtle
energy effects in water.
is important to dwell on this distinction for a moment.
for the "subtle energy" concept are quick to point
out that while subtle energies are difficult to understand and
measure(and that "orthodox scientists simply don't "get
it" yet"), a similar situation existed 250 years ago
for classic electromagnetism. 250 years ago, the effects of electromagnetism
could be seen, but not measured. Science advanced, and so did
instrumentation. So today, we can not only observe electromagnetic
effects but measure them as well.
analogy is made by subtle energy adherents that at present we
simply do not have instrumentation with adequate sensitivity
to make deterministic measurements of these subtle energies.
the explanation the subtle energy apologists offer is not quite
that simple. With very few exceptions, classical physicists have
not been able to demonstrate and prove and thus do not believe
such "non-electromagnetic" phenomena exist, since the
proponents tend to lean on relatively unknown, unmeasurable and
unproven biophysical phenomena in humans and other objects.
for the subtle energy apologists, their cause may have been stuck
a serious blow by revelations in the San Francisco Chronicle(7/23/99)
that a Livermore Laboratories scientist researching the relationship(s)
between electromagnetic(EM) fields and cellular responsiveness
apparently has been fabricating information which has been used
to scientifically link these two areas.
of this type of data makes it more difficult for peer organizations
(medical and otherwise) to begin accepting this biomagnetic relationship
as sound science.
makes this case even more important is the fact that if other
scientists and Government watchdog agencies which provided this
scientist with research funds could not duplicate the scientist's
results, when very strong electromagnetic fields were involved
in the above example(high voltage power lines)---what chance
is there that far weaker EM fields(distant magnetic fields from
space and other objects) being studied by the subtle energy proponents
are measurable or have any cellular effects?
few exceptions, most scientists and water "alterers"
involved in subtle energy research and applications are deeply
involved in the occult, metaphysical, New Age, extra-terrestrial
and other psychic and paranormal phenomena involving crystals,
pyramids and a myriad of other devices and fetishes which they
consider to have the "power" to provide special energy
sources or mechanisms for receiving, retransmitting or focusing
these special energies.
distinction between true science and pseudo-science or the metaphysical
is being blurred by those involved in subtle energy to the point
where I believe many dedicated and intellectually honest scientists,
technology investors, and lastly the public are being misled.
Those with metaphysical interests tend to rely more on intuition
and "channeled information" from disincarnate spirits
than on solid science.
example, most subtle energy adherents believe that various types
of crystals have self-generating "energies" which when
placed near the body or other objects will influence the biochemistry
or neurological functions of that body. They readily admit that
subtle energy is a metaphysical phenomena. Most western(Christian)
religious viewpoints on this subject clearly place these types
of phenomena on the short list of things to be avoided.
are known(in conventional electrical engineering circles) to
possess specific characteristics with respect to resonance and
frequency generation, when stimulated externally by physical
or electrical sources. To claim that crystals have any significant,
self-generating energy capabilities is not only unproven but
strains the academic and intellectual credibility of any scientist
who tends to promote such phenomena.
in the following discussion, we will set aside those altered
water concepts which utilize so-called "subtle energy"
techniques and this section will focus on those chemical and
physical alterations which have quantifiable scientific parameters
and which can and have proven to provide measurable effects on
the human body when consumed as a beverage or produce other desirable
effects on plants, animals or humans.
OF ALTERED/STRUCTURED WATER
altered/structured water in a strict definition includes the
following categories of technologies:
technology areas which do not follow the strict definition of
"physical" alteration but are included in our discussion
for completeness include:
Water in its various forms.
of the technologies listed above have been known for some time.
However, the instrumentation necessary to observe or measure
changes to the new species of water, both quantitatively and
qualitatively, have not been available until recently.
what each of these categories of altered/structured water have
in common is an attempt to influence plant, animal or human cellular
activities in some fashion, using various combinations of physical(and
chemical) alterations to the basic water molecule.
example, "Free Radicals" are a byword in the sports
and health industries today. The first four processes listed
above claim to "solve the free radical problem". (review free radical
this free radical "problem" via beverages or oral tablets(pills)
can be a very lucrative venture if the process can be shown to
be more effective than conventional anti-oxidant processes while
remaining non toxic in the dosages possible with these new techniques.
the process of nutrient "absorption" is constantly
bandied about in nutritional circles, with a wide variety of
processes being proposed to increase the efficiency of nutrient(or
pharmaceutical) absorption by cells. Many of the above altered/structured
water categories claim enhanced absorption of such materials
when that specific water is used.
of the above techniques utilize some variation of electromagnetic
stimulation to reduce surface tension and thus improve absorption.
The process is simple to replicate and surface tension(and hence
absorption efficiency and Zeta Potential which is covered later
in this section) is easy to measure using conventional and readily
most of the above categories of structured/altered water recognize
a basic premise in successful alteration and utilization processes:
the need to deal with extremely small dimensions to more effectively
penetrate cell membranes and/or carry nutrients into the cells.
Hence, one regularly sees the nomenclature "Nano",
"micro" and so forth.
nomenclature refer to the dimensionality of various materials(colloidals,
silicates, water clusters) that are necessary to achieve the
desired effects at the cellular level.
various researchers carefully conceal the exact, specific processes
and procedures which they use to achieve particular altered/structured
water characteristics, there are only a handful of known techniques
by which various physical characteristics of water can be changed
extent and in what combination these known technologies are employed
determines in large part the differences one observes between
various altered/structured water methodologies.
figure below summarizes the principal areas of discussion which
can be accessed from this page.
THE "NANO-WORLD" OF ALTERED WATER >(smaller
physicists, neurobiological specialists and other scientists
who have worked with altering water have determined that in order
for "altered" water to be effective in the human body(or
animals or plants), the water altering process must be done with
extremely small physical entities---entities on the order of
nanometer is 9 orders of magnitude smaller than one meter(roughly
three feet). These extremely small dimensions are necessary because
any materials which can pass through cell membranes into the
interior of the cell(where all the action is, so to speak) must
have nanometer dimensions.
altering technologies which do not use such "nanometer processes"
will by nature be less effective than those which do, primarily
because any alterations or physical entities embodied in those
alterations simply will not permeate the cellular membrane and
therefore remain essentially ineffective in any cellular activity.
drugs used by the orthodox medical community normally have molecular
dimensions far larger than nanometers, thus preventing their
effective passage into the body's cells. As a result, excessive
amounts of drugs are required to allow even small amounts to
permeate cells, thus resulting in "side effects" or
"overdoses" due to the large amount of unused or excess
drugs floating around in the body fluids.
we see in the following discussions, nano-meter based altered
water systems are designed to circumvent that type of problem
by using materials and physical effects which are dimensionally
similar to the porosity of cell membranes.
warning before getting started with the sales or use of Altered/Structured
>(please read before
>Chemical(Catalyst) Activated Water
- "Willard Water"
or Catalyst Activated Water was one of the first processes in
modern times to achieve various altered characteristics. "Willard
Water" is typical of those Catalyst or Chemically Activated
>Physically and Electromagnetically Activated
scientists have used more sophisticated physical and electromagnetic
phenomena to create far more powerful altered waters. A wide
variety of techniques are employed and are discussed in this
>Oxygen Enriched Water
final process of water alteration which we have selected to discuss
in this initial material involves oxygen-enriched water. Oxygenated
beverages have become more popular in the last half dozen years
and involve various physical, electromagnetic and chemical processes
to bond or hold oxygen and/or other nutrients in a water-based
beverage. This section gives an overview of the various methodologies
>Structured Water Analysis Methodologies
final section of this discussion deals with the various testing
and analysis methodologies which are currently in use to help
evaluate the effects of altered water on the human body. These
methodologies can also be used to assist in the determination
as to how altered/structured water may provide specific benefits
at the cellular level in the body.