ELECTROMAGNETIC EFFECTS AND FUNCTIONAL WATER
There are several categories of "electromagnetic effects" that water scientists(and pseudo- scientists) study and attempt to integrate into functional water capabilities:
(1) conventional electromagnetic effects that produce highly visible/measurable changes in the physical characteristics of water(i.e. reduced surface tension);
(2) the use of electromagnetic "information" which can be imprinted or "cloned" into the electronic "memory" of clusters of water molecules(Dr. Lorenzen's clustered water is an example); and(3) so called "subtle energy" effects caused by both conventional and non-conventional electromagnetic radiation eminating from non-standard sources such as human brainwaves, earth's electromagnetic field as well as the electromagnetic effects of distant planets and stars.
The first two categories have a wide range of empirical data to substantiate their effectiveness as viewed in a positive space/time domain. Electrical and electromagnetic forces operating in this positive domain for the most part can be characterized(and measured) with known equations which have as their dimensional properties space(distance) and/or time.
The third category is promoted by individuals motivated by non-conventional scientific conventions which are best characterized as "alternative science" or the body and soul of New Age, parapsychology and metaphysical thinking
Few if any solid empirical data exist on the third category which the conventional scientific community places any currency in. Yet, all three categories can be found in the promotion of a wide range of water products on store shelves and on the Internet.
CONVENTIONAL ELECTROMAGNETIC EFFECTS
Magnetic and Electric Effects on Water
Water, being dipolar, can be partly aligned by an electric field and this may be easily shown by the movement of a stream of water by an electrostatic source.
Very high field strengths (5 x 109 V m-1) are required to reorient water in ice such that freezing is inhibited . Even partial alignment of the water molecules with the electric field will cause pre-existing hydrogen bonding to become bent or broken. The balance between hydrogen bonding and van der Waals attractions is thus biased towards van der Waals attractions giving rise to less cyclic hydrogen bonded clustering.
Water is diamagnetic and may be levitated in very high magnetic fields (10 T, cf. Earth's magnetic field 30 mT). Lower magnetic fields (0.2 T) have been shown, in simulations, to increase the number of monomer water molecules but, rather surprisingly, they increase the tetrahedrality at the same time. They may also assist clathrate formation. The increase in refractive index with magnetic field has been attributed to increased hydrogen bond
These effects are consistent with the magnetic fields weakening the van der Waals bonding between the water moleculesa and the water molecules being more tightly bound, due to the magnetic field reducing the thermal motion of the inherent charges by generating dampening forces.
Due to the fine balance between the conflicting hydrogen bonding and non-bonded interactions in water clusters, any such weakening of the van der Waals attraction leads to a further strengthening of the hydrogen bonding and greater cyclic hydrogen bonded clustering.
This effect of the magnetic field on the hydrogen bonding has been further supported by the rise in the melting point of H2O (5.6 mK at 6 T) and D2O (21.8 mK at 6 T) indicating greater ordering (lower entropy) in the liquid water within a magnetic field.
Thus it appears that electric and magnetic fields have opposite effects on water clustering. Static magnetic effects have been shown to cause an increase in the ordered structure of water formed around hydrophobic molecules and colloids, as shown by the increase in fluorescence of dissolved probes.
This reinforces the view that it is the movement through a magnetic field, and its associated electromagnetic effect, that is important for disrupting the hydrogen bonding. Such fields can also increase the evaporation rate of water and the dissolution rate of oxygen but cannot, despite claims by certain expensive water preparations, increase the amount of oxygen dissolved in water above its established, and rather low, equilibrium concentration.
Magnetic fields can also increase proton spin relaxation, which may speed up some reactions dependent on proton transfer. Belief in whether or not magnetic or electromagnetic fields can have any more permanent effect on water, and solutions, depends on the presence of a working hypothesis for their mode of action (see also homeopathy). Such hypotheses are emerging.
On a cautionary note however, many studies either do not treat results with proper statistical rigor or do not use relevant 'untreated' material for comparison.
Unstructured water with fewer hydrogen bonds is a more reactive environment, as exemplified by the enhanced reactivity of supercritical water. An open, more hydrogen-bonded network structure slows reactions due to its increased viscosity, reduced diffusivities and the less active participation of water molecules.
Any factors that reduce water-water hydrogen bonding and hydrogen bond strength, such as electric fields, should encourage reactivity. Water clusters (even with random arrangements) have equal hydrogen bonding in all directions. As such, electric or electromagnetic fields that attempt to reorient the water molecules should necessitate the breakage of some hydrogen bonds; e.g. electric fields have been reported to halve the mean water cluster size as
measured by 17O-NMR.
Electromagnetic radiation (e.g. microwave) has been shown to exert its effect primarily through the electrical rather than magnetic effect. The increased hydration ability of water in electromagnetic fields has been demonstrated by the dissociation of an enzyme dimer (electric eel acetylcholinesterase), leading to gel formation, due to the microwave radiation from a mobile phone. The resultant aqueous restructuring caused by such processes may be kinetically stable.
At metallic electrodes, even quite low voltages can have impressive effects on the orientation of the water molecules and the positioning of ions. A negative potential of -0.23 V orients water hydrogen atoms towards the electrode whereas +0.52 V reverses this; both causing some hydrogen bond breakage and localized density increase. Ions are attracted or repelled dependent on their charge.
Similar orientations may take place at the surface of minerals containing alternating positive and negative charges such that a solid (static and non-exchangeable) water layer has been reported at the surface of highly polar metal oxides, (e.g. TiO2) and an ambient temperature single layer ice (with all the donor hydrogen bonds oriented towards each other or the silica surface oxygen atoms) is found, using modeling, on the surface of hydrophilic fully hydroxylated silica, (called ice tesselation), which may explain the many layers of structured water found at the surfaces of complex silicates.
Thus, a high-voltage electric field (333 kV m-1) has been shown to raise the water activity in bread dough, so ensuring a more efficient hydration of the gluten and treatment of water with magnetic fields of about one Tesla increases the strength of mortar due to its greater hydration. Rather unexpectedly, such electric fields (~1 MV m-1) apparently increase water's surface tension by about 2%.
High interfacial fields (E > 109 V m-1) at electrode (or charged) surfaces can cause a phase transition with an ordered layering of water at high densities similar to ice X . Such high fields (E ~109 V m-1) might also be found (perhaps surprisingly) at the surface of hydrophilic molecules where caused by the partial charges on the atoms and the small distances between the surface and first hydration layer.
High fields affect hydrogen bonding in an anisotropic manner, hydrogen bonds being strengthened along the field but weakened orthogonal to the field. At low fields, however, both translational and rotational motions may be reduced.
Electric fields also lower the dielectric constant of the water, due to the resultant partial or complete destruction of the hydrogen-bonded network. Consequentially, the solubility properties of the water will change in the presence of such fields and may result in the concentration of dissolved gasses and hydrophobic molecules at surfaces followed by reaction (e.g. due to reactive singlet oxygen or free radical formation such as OH•) or phase changes (e.g. formation of flattish surface nanobubbles).
Such changes can clearly result in effects lasting for a considerable time, giving rise to claims for 'memory' effects. One of the curious facts, concerning reports of the effects of magnets and electromagnetic radiation on the properties of water, is the long lifetime these effects seem to have. This should not be so surprising, however, as it can take several days for the effects, of the addition of salts to water, to finally stop oscillating.
Also, there is evidence that water structuring in still deaerated pure water increases over a period of a day or two, clathrates may persist metastably in water and water restructuring after infrared radiation persists for more than a day.
In addition to the breakage of hydrogen bonds electromagnetic fields may perturb in the gas/liquid interface and produce reactive oxygen species.
Changes in hydrogen bonding may effect carbon dioxide hydration resulting in pH changes.
Thus the role of dissolved gas in water chemistry is likely to be more important than commonly realized ; particularly if the reported formation of nanobubbles containing just a few hundred or less molecules of gas is substantiated.
Reinforcement of this view comes from the effect of magnetized water on ceramic manufacture and out-gassing experiments that apparently result in the loss of magnetic and electromagnetic effects. Gas accumulating at hydrophobic surfaces promotes the hydrophobic effect and low-density water formation. The accumulated gas molecules at such hydrophobic surfaces becomes supersaturating when electromagnetic effects disrupt this surface low-density water.
Recently, there has been some debate over 'digital biology'; a proposal from the late Jacques Benveniste (leader of the team that produced the controversial homeopathy paper) that 'specific molecular signals in the audio range' (hypothetically the 'beat' frequencies of water's infrared vibrations) may be heard, collected, transmitted (e.g. by phone) and amplified to similarly affect other water molecules at a receiver.
Until recently, this unlikely idea is generally thought highly implausible. The data has, however, reportedly been independently confirmed but this has not yet been published (which may be rather problematic in the present skeptical climate).
Rather interestingly, however, electromagnetic emission has been detected during the freezing of supercooled water due to negative charging of the solid surface at the interface caused by surface ionization of water molecules followed by preferential loss of hydrogen ions; a consequence, perhaps, of the Costa Ribeiro effect.
It is not unreasonable, therefore, that similar effects may occur during changes in the structuring of liquid water. Also, it has been reported that microwave frequencies can also give rise to signals audible to radar operators.
If electromagnetic effects do indeed influence the degree of structuring in water, then it is clear that they may have an effect on health. The biological effects of microwaves, for example, have generally been analyzed in terms of their very small heating effects. However, it should be recognized that there might be significant non-thermal effects due to the imposed re-orientation of water at the surfaces of biomolecular structures such as membranes.
Similar effects on membranes have been proposed to occur due to magnetic fields. Additionally as low-frequency, low level alternating electric fields have been found to affect the electrical conductivity of pure water, the effects of living near power cables and microwave towers should, perhaps, not be thought harmless just because no theory for harm has been formally recognized. Multiple occurences of leukemia have been reported in proximity to such radiation.
An interesting book by Dr. Robert O. Becker entitled "Cross Currents", the Perils of Electropollution and the Promise of Electromedicine" provides an excellent overview of how electromagnetics may help or hinder health.
With the exception of attempting to link a wide variety of "extreme" physical maladies such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, cancer and others to electromagnetic effects, without sound evidence, the book makes for interesting reading.
The Story of Royal Rife
Briefly, a scientist named Royal Rife invented a microscope in the 20's that he claimed allowed him to see the world of the very small with a magnification up to 8000X. A normal light microscope only goes to 1500X, allowing one to see bacteria, but nothing smaller. Rife's microscope supposedly allowed him to see viruses and a whole world while it was alive, unknown before that time and since. The modern electron microscope kills everything that it looks at, thus obviating much of the micro biological observations. With the microscope, Rife claimed to discover the virus that causes cancer.
This led him to his "beam ray device", which was tested by him and 20 other doctors, under the auspices of USC, in 1934.
Rife used the power of his microscope and his powerful insight to figure out that every micro-organism (virus, bacteria, etc.) vibrates at a specific frequency. With this knowledge he claimed to have discovered an effective way to eliminate cancer using electronic frequencies.
Supposedly the beam ray device was 100% effective at curing cancer, and was hailed across the country as the medical breakthrough of the 20th century, with doctors from the Mayo clinic, Northwestern University, and Stanford getting on the band wagon.
Many years of lawsuits followed between the AMA and Rife's company ending with him a broken man and the microscope and beam ray device fading into obscurity. A special section of this website will be added to provide information on specific frequencies which Rife found important in biological activity.
TEMPLATE AND IMPRINTING EFFECTS
A growing body of recent scientific evidence is assisting in the understanding of water's role as a mediator or transducer between the energetic(electromagnetic) and material(organic/inorganic) worlds and its function as an accumulator, transmitter and transducer of energy patterns and information.
As noted above, Lee Lorenzen's process is characteristic of this second category of electromagnetic "water conditioning".
The process begins with extremely pure distilled water and, while it is exposed to special ceramics, treats it with lasers and extremely strong magnetic fields to create water "clusters". Most water is in organizations or clumps of 60 or more water molecules (H2O).
Processing organizes the water molecules into clusters that are very mobile, therefore entering the cell system very rapidly and replenishing inter-cellular water.
Concurrent with the water clustering process is a "templating" process whereby primarily hexagonal water rings or clusters are collapsed around organic complexes such as proteins, amino acids and other compounds. Once again, electromagnetic effects are applied to this water-protein complex using the latest in ceramic and laser technology.
Prior to the end of the Process the protein base is removed.
The result is a semi-liquid crystal that resonates at a designated and predictable frequency. The specific frequencies in each crystalline Clustered Water solution are designed to be amplified by the cells of the human body, and transferred through resonant paths to tissues in need of "tuning".
Most present day medications react with the body chemically, very often with complicating side effects and lengthy periods of prescription. According to Lorenzen, the goal of the Clustered Water Template Induction Process is to create nontoxic water solutions that favorably impact biological systems through completely safe coherent energy transfers, using cell systems themselves, much like a fiber optic cable transfers data.
This process thus exhibits two major advantages:
(1) the clustering process reduces the grouping of water molecules to smaller numbers, principally hexagonal in form which permits more rapid and efficient hydration through the cellular membrane; and(2) the use of water itself, with its now unique frequency or resonant energies, as a carrier of information destined for the interior of the cell(s). This eliminates the pharmaceutical issues of prolonged and most likely overdose and side effect characteristics of conventional drugs.
It is virtually impossible to watch the cable or network TV today and not see some pharmaceutical company hawking a new drug which seems to have more side effects than the malady it purports to be eliminating.
Technology such as high efficiency hydration coupled with the templating process may be tomorrow's answer to overdoses and side effects from both over the counter and prescription drugs.
Using bioimpedence, as noted below, it has been shown that these solutions cause significant cell water turnover more rapidly than distilled, R.O., oxygenated or regular water.
In 2003 the Chinese Health Care Science and Technology Society organized an international cooperative research project to compare distilled water (DW) and one kind of US patented Microclustered Water (MW), called "VIVO", which was awarded by the US National Nutritional Foods Association as the "Best Nutritional Beverage in Year 2002".
Recent Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) studies also showed that diabetics had a lower ratio of intracellular water (ICW) / extracellular water (ECW). A total of 336 type 2 diabetics (blood sugar level >7.0mmol/L) from 5 hospitals were recruited in a randomized, double-blind trial.
In this study, about 45% of the subjects (147 patients) had relatively higher blood sugar levels (>8.3 mmol/L). All subjects received 250 ml of MW or DW twice daily for 4 weeks. To avoid over-dose absorption, subjects were advised not take medications within 30 minutes after drinking the test solutions.
BIA (RJL Systems, USA) and other clinic markers were performed weekly. It was observed that MW consumption improved cell water distribution (ICW/ECW), basal metabolic rate (BMR), phase angle (PA) and cell capacitance (CP) during the 4 week test period.
In the beginning of the study, there were no significant differences between DW group (75 subjects) and MW group (72 subjects) comparing four BIA physiological baseline parameters (P>0.05).
However, at the end of the experiment, the P values (MW vs. DW) of ICW/ECW, BMR, PA and CP were 0.025, 0.022, 0.007 and 0.009, respectively.
Oxygen-17 NMR half value spectra of MW are 64 to 67HZ, values approximating normal saline, plasma and fresh natural spring water, while DW half values exceed 115 HZ. The relative small size of the water cluster may be one of the mechanisms which lead to improved cell structure and function.
It is important to remember at this point that there are a wide variety of nay-sayers who STILL don't get it regarding NMR utilization for water cluster size determination. We will not mention names here but will note that much of this negative vocalization comes from misinformed academia "chemists" and failed medical professionals who seem not to have time for constructive research during their waking hours.
Results as shown with Lorenzen's recent studies clearly debunks these naysayers positions and points to potentially significant medical advances which now appear within the grasp of those who have diligently pursued these difficult areas of functional water research.
SUBTLE ENERGY EFFECTS
When one hears the words "subtle energy(SE)", most likely those words are used in a context similar to how Einstein used it, that is, to describe a type of energy that is at present not fully understood or measurable with today's equipment.
The term Subtle Energy (SE) is of recent origin. SE could mean a physical energy, such as electromagnetic or acoustic, that is of such low intensity science currently has no means of measuring its presence. Conventional sensors designed in the laboratories may not be sensitive enough to directly discern these fields. In short, SE is a physical field which is of very low magnitude.
Several scientists in the United States (Tiller, Bearden, Rein, Putoff, Green, Srinivasan) have studied SE and its supposed effects. Though each has developed his own nuanced theory of SE, in general they all tend to concur that SE phenomena is related to a type of "unified energy", and is not just a physical field of very low magnitude.
Furthermore, these theories vary in their definition and conditions which must exist in order for SE to be generated and observed. Some of these scientists view SE as a "fifth force" operating on the galactic and inter-galactic scale which is even more difficult to detect than gravity and which has zero effects on biological systems.
Others believe some of these forces have the potential to affect biological systems.
Finally, there are are the mystics and clairvoyants who attempt to relate these energies to Hilbert Space. These views fall into the New Age and metaphysical domains which are of no interest to this discussion and have no measurable and/or repeatable value to the advancement of verifiable medical science.
Contemporary quantum physics has mathematically described and predicted the presence of a unified energy which underlies conventional transverse electromagnetic (EM) vectors. The concept of a subtle energy underlying EM fields was first introduced by Bohm and Aharonov in describing quantum potentials as an implicate order "embedded in" our normal 3-D space. SE proposes that an additional implicate order is embedded within the quantum potentials.
According to the SE apologists, this "higher-dimensional space" is composed of an energy which has been called time-reversed waves, non-Hertzian waves, longitudinal waves, scalar waves, or zero-point energy. Chi, Tachyon, prana, orgone, and other names are commonly found as descriptive of these supposed electromagnetic characteristics.
The classical EM fields have been under investigation since the laws of Maxwell were established more than 150 years ago in England. Science knows all about these physical fields; we can generate, manipulate and use them for purposes such as long distance communication, computer applications and measurement techniques that are proliferating all around us. However, detailed knowledge regarding SE fields is virtually non-existant and expanding slowly.
There have been hundreds of studies trying to determine the purported existence and effects of SE. As would be expected, these studies range in quality from being of very high quality in terms of design methodology to those which are seriously flawed and utterly worthless. Note we used the descriptive "design methodology" versus "results".
The issue at hand is whether or not such energies exist and can be imprinted or placed in water and then, when ingested, perform some type of bioelectromagnetic process on the body's cells.
Many individuals firmly believe this can be done - they sometimes describe their methodology of determination to be "intuitive" rather than scientific.
As we said above, one can find all types of subtle energy devices and products created therewith on the Internet. Serious practitioners in the functional water area stick to the electromagnetic processes described in either (1) or (2) at the top of the page.
A final note: we will be reviewing Dr. Masaru Emoto's work on the apparent external influences of thought, prayer, music, etc. on water structure. For future reference on this topic, bookmark THIS PAGE.