Deep seawater refers to seawater offshore past the continental shelf that is too deep to be reached by sunlight. While no specific definition exists at this time, "deep seawater(DSW)" generally refers to seawater at depths equal to or greater than 200 meters.

Industrial, academic, and government bodies are collaborating in research and development and commercialization activities to release the unlimited potential of deep seawater(see some study results at the end of this memorandum).

In recent years, the public's awareness of health related matters has noticeably increased and so has their interest in products and services that use DSW. Some of these products are illustrated in a later section of this webpage.


Three major positive characteristics of DSW are its low-temperature stability, inorganic nutrient richness, and purity.

Its low-temperature stability aspect is utilized in the cultivation of cold water aquafarming. Through this, it may be possible to significantly eliminate costs related to the conventional method of aquafarming, which requires the cooling of surface seawater.

DSW is also receiving attention due to its balance of essential minerals including calcium and magnesium for use in health drinks and foods, pharmaceutical products, and other fields.

Many studies have shown that the percentages of various salts and the pH balance of DSW is approximately the same as human blood. In fact, during World War II, Navy doctors would use sea water for blood transfusions when blood supplies ran out and many lives were saved.(seehttp://www.curezone.com/foods/saltcure.asp for some interesting aspects of salt).

At some locations, DSW is being drawn from the 3,000 feet level below the surface of the Pacific Ocean. At this depth the water is very cold, between 6 and 8 C. The 3,000 foot level is well below where surface pollutants can reach. None of the pollutants from industry, farming, chemicals or human waste can taint Deep Sea Water.


The Deep Sea Water currently being drawn from the oceans depths for use as bottled drinking water is very old. It is estimated that it takes nearly 2,000 years for the water to travel from the warm Mexican ocean currents up through the freezing Arctic Currents, under the great glaciers of Greenland where it picks up ancient minerals that leach down from the ice. Then it is on around and down toward the deep channels of the Pacific Ocean. It is there, near Hawaii, that the water is currently being drawn for bottling.

The following figure illustrates the flow pattern of the major surface and subsurface(deep) ocean currents. Near surface warm currents are drawn in red. Blue depicts the deep cold currents. Note how this system is continuously moving water from the surface to deep within the oceans and back to the top of the ocean. (Source: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment -ACIA).


An animation of the primary ocean surface(light blue) and deep water(dark blue) currents is shown below.

How Ocean Currents are Formed and How they Interact

The following discussion is provided primarily to assist the reader in an understanding of where and why certain portions of the world's oceans are suitable for extraction of deep seawater(DSW) resources.

As one would expect, an ocean current can be defined as a horizontal movement of seawater at the ocean's surface. Ocean currents are normally driven by the circulation of wind above surface waters. Frictional stress at the interface between the ocean and the wind causes the water to move in the wind direction.

Large ocean currents are a response of the atmosphere and ocean to the flow of energy from the tropics to polar regions. In some cases, currents are transient features and affect only a small area. Other ocean currents are essentially permanent and extend over large horizontal distances.

On a global scale, large ocean currents are constrained by the continental masses found bordering the three oceanic basins. Continental borders cause these currents to develop an almost closed circular pattern called a "gyre"(perhaps shorthand for "circular gyration").

Each ocean basin has a large "gyre" located at approximately 30° North and South latitudes in the subtropical regions. The currents in these gyres are driven by the atmospheric flow produced by the subtropical high pressure systems. Smaller gyres occur in the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans centered at 50° North. Currents in these systems are propelled by the circulation produced by polar low pressure centers. In the Southern Hemisphere, these gyre systems do not develop because of the lack of constraining land masses.

A typical gyre displays four types of joined currents:

(1) two east-west aligned currents found respectively at the top and bottom ends of the gyre; and

(2) two boundary currents oriented north-south and flowing parallel to the continental margins.

Direction of flow within these currents is determined by the direction of the macro-scale wind circulation. Boundary currents play a role in redistributing global heat latitudinally.

Surface Currents of the Subtropical Gyres

On either side of the equator, in all ocean basins, and as shown in the above figures, there are two west flowing currents: the North and South Equatorial. These currents flow between 3 and 6 kilometers per day and usually extend 100 to 200 meters in depth below the ocean surface. The Equatorial Counter Current, which flows towards the east, is a partial return of water carried westward by the North and South Equatorial currents. In El Nino years, this current intensifies in the Pacific Ocean.

Flowing from the equator to high latitudes are the western boundary currents. These warm water currents have specific names associated with their location:

North Atlantic - Gulf Stream;

North Pacific - Kuroshio;

South Atlantic - Brazil;

South Pacific - East Australia; and

Indian Ocean - Agulhas.

All of these currents are generally narrow, jet-like flows that travel at speeds between 40 and 120 kilometers per day. Western boundary currents are the deepest ocean surface flows, usually extending 1000 meters below the ocean surface.

Flowing from high latitudes to the equator are the eastern boundary currents. These cold water currents also have specific names associated with their location:

North Atlantic - Canary;

North Pacific - California;

South Atlantic - Benguela;

South Pacific - Peru; and

Indian Ocean - West Australia.

All of these currents are generally broad, shallow moving flows that travel at speeds between 3 and 7 kilometers per day.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the east flowing North Pacific Current and North Atlantic Drift move the waters of western boundary currents to the starting points of the eastern boundary currents.

The South Pacific Current, South Indian Current and South Atlantic Current provide the same function in the Southern Hemisphere. These currents are associated with the Antarctic Circumpolar (West Wind Drift). Because of the absence of landmass at this latitude zone, the Antarctic Circumpolar flows in continuous fashion around Antarctica and only provides a partial return of water to the three Southern Hemispheric ocean basins.
Surface Currents of the Polar Gyres

The polar gyres exist only in the Atlantic and Pacific basins in Northern Hemisphere. They are propelled by the counterclockwise winds associated with the development of permanent low pressure centers at 50° of latitude over the ocean basins. Note that the bottom west flowing current of the polar gyres is the topmost flowing current of the subtropical gyres.

Subsurface(Deep Seawater) Currents

Now, we get to the interesting parts.

The world's oceans also have significant currents that flow beneath the surface, typically below 200 meters depth. Subsurface currents generally travel at a much slower speed than surface flows.

The subsurface currents are driven by differences in the density of sea water. The density of sea water deviates in the oceans because of variations in temperature and salinity.

Referring again to the above diagram and animation, near surface sea water begins its travel deep into the ocean in the North Atlantic. The downwelling of this water is caused by high levels of evaporation which cools and increases the salinity of the sea water located here.

The high levels of evaporation take place between Northern Europe and Greenland and just north of Labrador, Canada. This sea water then moves south along the coast of North and South America until it reaches Antarctica.

At Antarctica, the cold and dense sea water then travels eastward joining another deep current that is created by evaporation occuring between Antarctica and the southern tip of South America. Slightly into its eastward voyage the deep cold flow splits off into two currents, one of which moves northward.

In the middle of the North Pacific and in the Indian Ocean (off the east coast of Africa), these two currents move from the ocean floor to its surface creating upwellings. The current then becomes near surface, moving eventually back to the starting point in the North Atlantic or creating a shallow warm flow that circles around Antarctica. One complete circuit of this flow of sea water is estimated to take about 2,000 years.

ISN'T SALT JUST SALT? - Unrefined Ocean Sea Salt versus Refined Salt - Table Salt

Unrefined sea salt contain 98.0 % NaCl (sodium-chloride) and up to 2.0% other minerals (salts) : Epsom salts and other Magnesium salts, Calcium salts, Potassium (Kalium) salts, Manganese salts, Phosphorus salts, Iodine salts, .. all together over 100 minerals composed of 80 chemical elements... The composition of crystalline ocean salt is so complicated that no laboratory in the world can produce it from its basic 80 chemical elements. Nature is still a better chemist than people.

Refined salt (Table Salt) is 99.9% NaCl (sodium-chloride), (chemical as clean as Heroin or White Sugar) . It almost always contain additives, like 0.01% of Potassium-Iodide (added to the salt to avoid Iodine deficiency or disease of the thyroid gland), Sugar (added to stabilize Iodine and as anti-caking chemical), Aluminum silicate.

Thanks to Potassium-Iodide, we now have an epidemic of Hyperthyroidism.

For an extraordinary explanation of how natural salts can dramatically affect our body's chemistry and the resultant energy as well as longevity factors, visit Dr. Chris Morris' outstanding website on ZIQUIN™ products at www.ziquin.com.

Samples of Basic and Applied Research Being Conducted on DSW

In general, the following areas have received attention from several private and government funded organizations, primarily in Asia.

Topic of Research


Constituents and attributes of deep seawater

Research into the attributes of deep seawater such as constituents, purity, temperature, algae production, etc.

Application to health promotion fields

Research into the health promoting effects of deep seawater baths and efficient methods of usage with the cooperation of monitors.

Development of health drinks using deep seawater as a base ingredient

Research into the positive effects of deep seawater on the human body.

Application to medicines, agrichemicals, foods, etc.

Extraction and production of anti-allergic substances from algae cultured in deep seawater for use in pharmaceuticals, agrichemicals, foods, etc.

Extraction and production of new anti-cancer agents from microorganisms isolated from deep seawater for use in pharmaceuticals, agrichemicals, etc.

Development of breads, pickled foods, etc.

Application to sterilization and freshness preservation

Applicable research of the sterility, purity, plant cultivation, liquid solution, freshness preservation of agricultural products, etc. of electrolytic deep seawater

Research into the manufacturing of brackish ice for use in maintaining the freshness of fish

Application to agricultural fields

Deep seawater use in agricultural fields.

Some samples of specific research of DSW conducted on animals are referenced below.

Samples of Deep Seawater Consumer Products Currently Available

Alcoholic Beverages

As an example, sake brewers in Kochi, Japan have found that putting deep seawater into the fermentation water for Japanese sake rice wine has the effect of raising the strength of the alcohol and heightening the premium fragrance, so they use deep seawater for sake brewing.

Drinking Water

As photosynthesis does not occur at depths where sunlight does not penetrate, inorganic nutrients are not consumed. As a result, in comparison with surface water, deep seawater contains a high amount of inorganic nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus, which are consumed by phytoplankton.

The balance of minerals is also favorable.

The amount of organic matter and bacteria in deep seawater is considerably less than in surface water. Deep seawater is extremely pure from both a chemical and microbiological standpoint.


Skin Care and Cosmetics

Shu Uemura Cosmetics has had good results in developing and marketing face lotions and cosmetics using deep seawater for its rapid skin-absorption qualities, more than double that of ordinary water.

A recent paper published by Dr. Hajime Kimata from the Department of Pediatrics and Allergy, Uji-City, Japan: ("Reduction of Allergic Skin Responses and Serum Allergen-Specific IgE and IgE-Inducing Cytokines by Drinking Deep Seawater in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis") is typical of the results being obtained from studies conducted on skin-care and other topical uses of DSW.

Muroto City and other agencies support marketing research and test research into the use of deep seawater, while sponsoring experimental research linked with local universities and hospitals into improving skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis and boosting immunity.

Food Products

Muroto City has long had ties to food manufacturers who utilize deep seawater. These makers have been successful in developing a large number of products that take advantage of seawater's good mineral balance and its tendencies to bring a mellow flavor to foods and to stimulate fermentation of microorganisms.

Deep seawater has been developed for use in making tofu because of its ability to boost sweetness and water absorption, and in breadmaking because yeast action is increased so that bread rises better without the use of additives.

Besides its utilization as an ingredient in food processing, DSW is a natural resource that holds great latent potential for commercial development including applications in farming, nurseries and cultivation, making use of its mineral content and low temperature, energy related uses in salt-making, ice-making and thermal energy conversion, and environmental rehabilitation including creation of seaweed forests.

In-Vivo DSW Health Studies on Humans and Animals

Since a wide variety of processed foods and beverages have been manufactured using DSW, desalted DSW and concentrated DSW, the two most important health questions which require answers when consuming these products are:

(a) are there measurable or perceived benefits from consuming products containing these substances? and

(b) are there any negative effects on the blood chemistry when consuming these substances?

Regarding (a) above: analysis of human blood chemistry and the ionic composition of DSW indicates that considerable similarities may exist between the two, even to the point of near identity in some aspects of the comparison. as shown below. Recall from the foregoing discussion that in lieu of blood plasma, medics during WWII successfully used seawater to save lives.

There is much discussion of this comparison, with viewpoints obviously on both sides of the issue. The comparison for some studies shows considerable differences while other studies indicate a near identity. It would appear that a chemical/ionic near match can be obtained when DSW is drawn from very specific areas where oceanic mineral composition has produced the proper chemistry.

Therefore, proper extraction location combined with proper desalination and bottling processes can make the difference between common seawater and DSW with a myriad of human health advantages.

Special techniques are now being developed to use DSW to create even more precise levels and ratios of specific ionic minerals for the health and nutrition markets. Healthy bodies maintain specific ratios of ionic electrolytes; unhealthy bodies many times have skewed or highly offset ratios which, when supplimented with proper or counterbalancing mineral ratios, can provide pronounced, significant physiological body chemistry changes.

In any event, the greater view, particularly in Japan and in a growing number of other Asian and Western countries, is that the high purity, ionic mineral content of DSW has considerable benefit to cellular chemistry and function and hence overall bodily wellbeing.

To date, no large scale, human in-vivo tests have been conducted to our knowledge. With the increasing number of human users of DSW, it should not be long before at least some initial testing can be documented.

Perhaps the best answer to date on (b) above is a study by Yasuo Tsuchiya and others and published in the Tokyo Journal of Experimental Medicine entited "Effects of Desalted Deep Seawater on Hematologic and blood Chemical Values in Mice". published in early 2004(TJEM, 2004, 203,175-182).

In their paper, these scientists present the results of carefully monitored tests on mice using various concentrations of DSW while using distilled water as the control.

The bottom line, as they discovered, is that drinking diluted DSW is as safe as drinking purified water. There were no abnormal growth or behaviour problems, neither were there any signs of illness nor a single case of death during the 12 week study.

There was no evidence of acute or even subacute effects of diluted DSW on the test animals. This comparison included red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count and neutrophil counts.

However, white blood cell and lymphocyte counts occurred in the diluted SURFACE seawater test animals. Triglyceride levels were higher in selected test cases, again only for the SURFACE seawater test conditions. This result seems to underscore the benefits of using water from levels deeper than 100-200 meters.

Although Dr. Tsuchiya's paper only deals with a test program constrained to DSW from one particular geographic area and oceanic condition, it is worth obtaining and reviewing in that it represents a landmark study in this growing international business area.


One of Hawaii's fastest-growing exports is based on a commodity the state is soaking in:

Japanese consumers, in particular, are paying top dollar for desalinated Hawaiian deep-sea water, which is marketed as a dietary supplement that aids weight loss, stress reduction, improved skin tone and digestion.

Several companies, capitalizing on the trend, have invested tens of millions of dollars in bottling facilities near Kona on the Big Island and employ over 100 workers, according to state officials. Over the next few years, the state estimates the companies will invest in excess of another $100 million in bottling plants and hire 400 to 600 additional workers.

"I think they're one of the top exporters already for the state," said Steve Bretschneider, deputy director for the Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism. "The other great thing is we have plenty of it."

Small bottles of Hawaii Deep Marine Inc.'s Kona Nigari sell for $33.50 at the Key of Life store in the Royal Hawaiian Shopping Center.

The business has grown large enough that Gov. Linda Lingle decided it is time to issue an official Hawaii deep-sea water certificate. The state will charge companies a fee to use a special logo, certifying that the seawater is from Hawaii. The program could generate hundreds of thousands of dollars in revenue for the state.

Koyo USA Corp., maker of Ma Ha Lo brand seawater, and using technology developed and built by our associates will be the first to carry the Hawaii certification.
The deep-sea water certification program will help companies such as Koyo distinguish their seawater from Japan-produced seawater. Hawaiian seawater is considered of high quality and commands a high price.

Koyo's water is pumped from the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority(NELHA) pipeline, which extends 2,000 feet below the surface of the ocean. The company, which ships over 80,000 bottles of water to Japan each day, plans to triple capacity within a few months.

Koyo isn't the only company dipping into Hawaii seawater, said Jeff Smith, executive director of the
Natural Energy Lab. The lab has five tenants with plans to sell deep-sea water.

Koyo's Web site says its Ma Ha Lo's brand of DSW attributes include its purity, healthy nutrient content and a pH balance that mimics human blood. The water is high in mineral content and believed to be free of modern contaminants.


For a quick overview of what type of equipment and costs are involved in the processing of DSW for subsequent bottling, go to www.aquatechnology.net/universalwater.html.

For information on how we can build you a DSW processing and bottling plant identical to those which we have constructed to date in Hawaii, if you might be considering simply being an investor in such a rapidly growing and profitable enterprise*, or if you have financial or seacoast real estate resources along the DSW "water path" shown in the figures earlier in this webpage, contact

Gene Shaparenko at Aqua Technology, 1-805-773-4502 or e-mail me at purewater@earthlink.net.

Serious and qualified inquiries only.

*The Koyo DSW plantS built using our unique and proprietary technology earned $200 million last year.