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PREFIXES FOR METRIC UNITS

centi = 10-2= 1/100

milli = 10-3= 1/1,000

micro = 106= 1/1,000,000

kilo = 103 = 1,000

mega= 106=

1,000,000 giga= 109= 1,000,000,000

 

LINEAR CONVERSIONS

1 inch (in) = 2.54 centimeters (cm) = 25.4 millimeters (mm)

1 foot (ft) = 12 inches (in) = 30.48 centimeters (cm) = 0.3048 meters (m)

1 centimeter (cm) = 0.3937 inches (in) = 10 millimeters (mm)

1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm) = 39.37 inches (in) = 3.28 feet (ft)

1 micron (,um) = 1 x 10-6 meters (m) = 0.000001 meters (m) = 0.00003937 inches (in).

 

AREAS

1 square foot (sq.ft or ft2) = 144 square inches (sq.in or in2)

1 acre = 43,560 ft2

1 square mile = 640 acres

area of a circle = pi x R2 = 0.785 x D2

(pi =3.1416; R = radius = 1/2 diameter; D = diameter = 2 x radius (in, ft, cm, or m)

VOLUMES

1 U.S. gallon of water = 4 quarts (qt) = 3.785 liters (1) = 8.337 pounds (lb) = 128 fluid ounces (fl.oz.) = 0.1337 ft3 = 1.201 British imperial gallons = 0.37854 x 10-3 cubic meters (m3)

1 fluid ounce (fl.oz.) of water= 29.573 ml = 29.573 g = 1.04 avoirdupois (weight) ounce

1 liquid cup = 8 fluid ounces = 0.5 pint = 236.584 ml

1 milliliter (ml) = 16 drops (approximately)

1 liter= 0.2642 U.S. gallons = 1.0568 quarts = 1000 cm3 = 0.035313 in2 = 33.815 fluid ounces

1 cubic foot (ft3) = 1728 cubic inches (in3) = 7.485 U.S. gallons = 28.32 liters = 0.02832 m3

1 m3 = 10001iters = 35.315 ft3 = 264.2 U.S. gallons

1 acre-foot (ac-ft) = 325,851 gallons

volume of a cylinder = pi R2 x H = 0.785 x D2 x H ( pi = 3.1416; R = radius; D = diameter; H = height (in, ft, cm or m)

volume of a smooth dome = pi x H2 x - (R-(H3))

 

WEIGHTS

1 pound (lb) = 16 fluid ounces (fl.oz.) = 453.59 grams (gm) = 0.45359 kilograms (kg) = 453.590 milligrams (mg) = 7000 grains (gr)

1 avoirdupois (weight) ounce of water = 0.9615 fl. oz = 28.349 grams

1 kilograrn (kg) = 2.2046 pounds (lb)

1 grain (gr) = 64.8 milligrams (mg) = 17.1 ppm

1 milliequivalent of CaCo3 per liter (meq/L) = 50.045 milligrams of CaC03 per liter (mg/L)

1 meq/ml CaC03 = 21.867 kilograins of CaC03 per ft3

1 gram of water at 4°C = 1 milliliter (ml) = 1 cubic centimeter (cm3)

1 milligram per iiter (mg/L) = 1 part per million (ppm) = 8.337 pounds per million gallons of water

1 microgram per liter (ug/L) = 1 part per blliion (ppb)

1 grain per U.S. gallon (gpg) = 17.1 milligrams per liter (mg/L) = 17.1 ppm = 142.86 pounds per million gallons of water

1 gpg of total water hardness as CaC03 exchanges for 7.86 mg/L of sodium (Na) or 13.4 mg/L potassium (K)

 

FLOW RATES-Liquids

1 U.S. gallon per minute (gpm) = 0.22715 cubic meters per hour (m3/h) = 0.06309 liters per second (Us)

1 m3/h = 4.403 gpm

1 liter per minute (l/min) = 4.403 x 10-3 US Gallons per second

1 milliliter per minute (ml/min) = 0.38 gallons per day (gpd)

 

PRESSURES

1 pound per square inch (psi) = 6.895 kilopascals (kPa) = 2.311 ft. of water column = 2.036 in of mercury

l kPa = 1 x 103 pascals (Pa) or newtons per squared meter (N/m2) = 0.1450 psi = 0.2953 in of mercury (Hg) = 0.3351 ft of H2O = 4.021 in of H2O

1 bar=100kPa=14.5psi

TIME

1 day = 24 hours = 1,440 minutes = 86,400 seconds

1 hour = 60 minutes = 3,600 seconds

 

SALT BRINE

1 U.S. gallon of saturated brine contains 2.6 lbs. sodium chtoride

1 ft3 (7.481 U.S. gailons) of saturated brine contains 19.4 Ibs. of sodium chloride

1 pound of sodium chloride (NaCI) contains 5,994 grains of sodium expressed as CaC03

1 pound of potassium chloride (KCI) contains 4,699 grains of potassium expressed as CaC03

Completely saturated brine is a 26.4% solution of NaCI with a specific gravity of 1.20 at 20°C

(NOTE: At 25°C,35.9 grams of NaCI will dissolve in 100 grams of H2O; therefore, 35.9g/135.99 = 26.4% solution of NaCI)

 

INTERNATIONAL

1 grain per British imperial gallon = 14.3 mg/L = 0.836 grains per U.S. gallon (gpg) = 14.3 ppm

1 English degree of hardness = 1 Clark = 14.3 mg/L = 0.836 gpg = 14.3 ppm

1 French degree of hardness = 10.0 mg/L = 0.585 gpg = 10.0 ppm

1 German degree of hardness = 17.9 mg/L = 1.05 gpg = 17.9 ppm

 

TEMPERATURE

From Fahrenheit to Celsius: 0C = (59) x (32°F)

From Celsius to Fahrenheit: 0F = (°C x (95)) + 32

NOTE: Degrees Celsius (°C) = Degrees Centigrade (°C)

 

MISCELLANEOUS

1 level tablespoon = 0.5 fl. oz. = 14.787 ml = 3.0 level teaspoons

1 level teaspoon = 4.929 ml = 1/6 fl. oz.

Household Bleach = 5.25%NaHOCI = 52,500 ppm Cl2

1 teaspoon (4.929 ml) of 5.25% NaHOCI (bleach) per U.S. gallon of water= 65 ppm Cl2

2 cups (16 fl.oz.) of bleach to 100 U.S. gallons = 62.5 ppm Cl2

6-inch diameter casing holds 1.47 U.S. gallons per foot; therefore, each 68 feet of 6-inch casing holds about 100 gallons of water.

 

Data courtesy of the Water Quality Association(WQA)