FUNCTIONAL WATER AND

STRUCTURE MAKING AND STRUCTURE BREAKING IONS


Listed below are various ionic materials which have been evaluated by a variety of scientists as to their ability to create or destroy hexagonal water clusters; water clusters which scientists are discovering are found in healthy cellular environments.

While calcium and sodium can be used to create hexagonal water clusters(as verified by NMR techniques), ions such as magnesium and potassium tend to destroy such hexagonal clusters, producing pentagonal or other unorganized water clusters.

Water around healthy cells has been determined to be highly structured and to be in hexagonal clusters. See Functional Water References and Recommended Reading for technical details of these statements.

Water bottlers seeking to produce a good, healthy mineral water for commercial purposes would do well to determine from their laboratory reports how their mineral content stacks up against the table below.

Additionally, water softening/conditioning companies who are finding that sodium chloride is an increasing problem for individuals with high blood pressure and hypertension and are recommending potassium chloride salt instead would do well to see what both potassium and chlorides are doing to the structure of any water clusters in the product water of their water conditioning systems.

Users of water softeners who switch from sodium to potassium based water conditioning salts should pay attention to the table below not only from the standpoint of poorer water structure with potassium but also the mere presence of chloride in both salt preparations.

These are good reasons to purify home drinking water by way of steam distillation or reverse osmosis to remove the structure breaking ions which destroy healthy water clusters.

Examples of Structure-Making and Structure-Breaking Ions
Structure-Making Ions
Structure-Breaking Ions
Element
Ions
ΔEww
Element
Ions
ΔEww
Calcium
Ca+2
32.2
Magnesium
Mg+2
-8.8
Lithium
Li+
27.2
Potassium
K+
-3.8
Sodium
Na+
3.3
Rubidium
Rb+
-6.3
Zinc
Zn+2
50.6
Aluminum
Al+3
-313.4
Iron
Fe+3
51.9
Chloride
Cl-
-7.5
Copper
Cu+2
49.8
Bromide
Br-
-7.5

Stronger Bonds decrease free movement of water molecules - increase hexamer structure

Weaker bonds increase free movement of water molecules - decrease hexamer structure and increase unstructured water clusters.

For a more detailed treatment of ionic materials which have the ability to make or break water clusters by strengthening or weakening hydrogen bonds, go to http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/hofmeist.html#306

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